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English Topography Part III Derbyshire - Dorsetshire
Derbyshire
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[Page 3]

Derbyshire.

[1816, Part II. pp. 602-604; 1819, Part II., pp. 12-15; 105-109;]

ANCIENT STATE AND REMAINS.

British Inhabitants.-Coritani
Roman Province.-Flavia Cæsariensis. Stations.-Derventio, Little Chester; Ad Trivonam, Berry Farm ; Aquæ, Buxton ; Lutudarum, Chesterfield.
Saxon Heptarchy.-Mercia.
Antiquities.-
[transcriber's note: single paragraph in the book, but listed here for easy searching]
Arbor Low and Nine Ladies, Druidical circles ;
Hirst Stones, Druidical monument;
Staden Low earthwork;
Robin Hood's Mark, and the Turning-stone, near Ashover ;
Beauchief and Dale Abbeys;
All Saints', Derby (tower 180 feet high) ;
Repton (spire 198 feet), Chesterfield (twisted spire 230 feet), and Wirksworth Churches;
Castleton or Peak, Codnor, Mackworth, and Bolsover Castles;
Haddon Hall ;
South Wingfield Manor House ;
British, Cair's Work, or Carle's Work, rude fortification on Hathersage Moor;
Roman, Melandra Castle camp, altar at Haddon Hall, inscribed pigs of lead found near Matlock;
Melbourne, Sandiacre and Steetley Churches;
Ashover leaden font;
Bakewell and Eyam Crosses;
Anchor Church, excavation in a rock near Foremark ;
Barlborough and Hardwick Halls.

The lead mines of this county were worked by the Romans.
Repton was the burial-place of the Mercian Kings Merewala and Ethelbald.
St. Alkmund's Church, Derby, contains the remains of Alkmund. son of Alured, King of Northumberland.

PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE.

Rivers.- Trent, Derwent, Dove, Wye, Errewash, Rother, Henmore, Mease, Amber, Ashop, Barbrook, Burbadge, Crawley,

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Eccles-burn, Ethrow, Goyte, Gunno, Headford, Ibber, Idle, Lathkill or Larkill, Martin Brook, Mersey, Morledge, Now, Schoo.

Inland Navigation.-Trent and Mersey, Chesterfield, Errewash, Peak Forest, Cromford, Ash by de la Zouch, and Derby Canals ; Trent and Derwent Rivers; Nutbrook Canal. On the Cromford Canal is a tunnel (at Butterley) 2,978 yards long, an aqueduct bridge over the Amber 200 yards long and 50 feet high, and another of the same length, and 30 feet high, over the Derwent ; on Peak Forest Canal is an inclined plane of 512 yards, and an aquaduct bridge over the Mersey 100 feet high, having three arches, each of 60 feet span.

Eminences and Views.-
[transcriber's note: single paragraph in the book, but listed here for easy searching]
Axedge, 1,751 feet;
Holme Moss or Kinder Scout, in the high Peak, 1,859 feet;
Brassington Moor, Alport, near Wirksworth, and Crich Cliff, in the low Peak;
Thorp Cloud;
Charlesworth Nick;
Robin Hood's Chair, Win Hill ;
Riber Hill, and Heights of Abraham, Matlock;
Lord's Seat, 1,751 feet ;
Hathersage, 1,377 feet;
Alport Heights, 980 feet;
the High Tor in Matlock Dale rises almost perpendicularly from the river above 300 feet;
Bolsover Castle;
Chatsworth hunting town.

Natural Curiosities.-
[transcriber's note: single paragraph in the book, but listed here for easy searching]
Buxton, Matlock, Kedleston, Quarndon and Heage medicinal waters;
scenery of Matlock, Dove Dale, Middleton, and Monsal Dales;
Bradwell crystallized cavern ;
ebbing and flowing well ;
Mam Tor, or the Shivering Mountain ;
Elden Hole, Poole's Hole, Castleton Cavern, Marvel Stones, Router Rocks;
Bradley, Graned, and Chee Tors;
Petrifying spring, Cumberland, Smedley, and Rutland Caverns, Matlock ;
group of grit-stone rocks called Robin Hood's Stride, or Mock Beggar's Hall, on Stanton Moor;
Reynard's Hall, a cave in Dovedale.

Elden Hole was ascertained by John Lloyd, Esq., to be a shaft of 62 yards deep, at the bottom of which are two caverns, as described by him in "Philosophical Transactions," vol lxi.

Tepid springs, Buxton 82°, Matlock 68°, Stony Middleton 63°, Bakewell 60°, Brough near Hope, Cromford, and Stoke.

Sulphureous, at Agnes and Mudge meadows, Bakewell, Bradwell, Brassington, Cowley near Dronfield, Kedleston, Kniveton, Millington Green near Kirk Ireton, Shottle in Duffield, Shuttlewood near Bolsover, West Hallam, Whittington, and near Wirksworth.

Chalybeate, most celebrated at Ashover; Birley in Eckington, Bradley, Buxton, Chesterfield, two at Duffield, Eccleston in Youlgrave, Heage, Hope near Kedleston, Matlock, Morley Park, Quarndon, Shottle, Stanley, Tibshelf, and Whittington.

Saline, at Donisthorpe, and between Hope and Bradwell.

Ebbing and flowing, at Barmoor and Tideswell.

At Overton, seat of Sir Joseph Banks, are two gooseberry-trees, of the smooth red or Warrington sort, remarkably good bearers; the extreme length of one, measured in 1816, was 54 feet 7 inches; the other, which was planted in 1794, measured in 1808,41 feet 5 inches.

At Bretby,

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the Earl of Chesterfield's, is a cedar of Lebanon 13 feet 9 inches in circumference, planted in February, 1676-77, and is probably the oldest tree of its kind in this kingdom. The Enfield cedar was planted nearly at the same time; those in the physic Garden at Chelsea in 1683.

Public Edifices.-
[transcriber's note: single paragraph in the book, but listed here for easy searching]
Ashbourne School, founded in 1585.
Burton upon-Trent Bridge will be noticed in the Compendium of Staffordshire.
Buxton baths; crescent built by the late Duke of Devonshire in 1785 and 1786 ; stables, a circular area of 60 yards internal diameter, with coach-houses for 60 carriages.
Cavendish Bridge, near Wilne, built by the Cavendish family about 1750.
Chesterfield Town Hall, erected 1790; architect, Carr.
Derby Almshouse, built by Elizabeth Countess of Shrewsbury, 1599; county hall erected in 1659; All Saints' Church, architect Gibbs, finished 1725 ; Guildhall, 1731; county gaol, 1756; theatre, 1773; assembly rooms, 1774; ordnance depot, Wyatt architect, completed 1805 ; infirmary, William Strutt, Esq., architect, cost £30,000, opened 1810; schools.
Etwall Hospital.
Harrington Bridge at Sawley, begun 1786, finished 1790.
Measham Town Hall.
Ravenstone Hospital, founded by Rebecca Wilkinson, 1712.
Repton School.
Swarkston Bridge, span over the river 138 yards, but its whole length over the low grounds 1,304 yards.

Seats.-
[transcriber's note: single paragraph in the book, but listed here for easy searching]
Chatsworth and Hardwick Hall, Duke of Devonshire, lord- lieutenant of the county;
Alfreton, Rev. H. C. Morewood;
Aldercar, Rev. John Smith;
Alderwaslee Hall, Francis Hurt, Esq. ;
Allestrey, J. C..Girardot, Esq. ;
Ashbourne Hall, Sir Brooke Booth by, Bart. ;
Aston, Rev. Charles Holden;
Bank Hall, Samuel Frith, Esq. ;
Barlborough, C. H. Rodes, Esq. ;
Barrow, John Beaumont, Esq. ;
Barton Blount, Francis Bradshaw, Esq. ;
Beauchief Abbey, P. P. Burnell, Esq. ;
Bolsover, Duke of Portland;
Bradley, Godfrey Meynell, Esq. ;
Breadsall Priory, Mrs. Darwin;
Bretby Park, Earl of Chesterfield;
Bridge End, J. B. Strutt, Esq. ;
Calke Abbey, Sir Henry Harpur Crewe, Bart. ;
Castle Field, John Burrow, Esq. ;
Catton, Eusebius Horton, Esq. ;
Chaddesden, Sir Robert Mead Wilmot, Bart. ;
Croxall, late Thomas Prinsep, Esq. ;
Darley, Walter Evans, Esq. ;
Darley Hall, Robert Holden, Esq. ;
Doveridge House, Lord Waterpark;
Drakelow, Sir Roger Gresley, Bart. ;
Duffield, John Balguy, Esq. ;
Dunston Hall, Mrs. Smith;
Durant Hall, A. B. Slater, Esq. ;
Ednaston Lodge, Hon. W. Shirley;
Egginton, Sir Henry Every, Bart. ;
Elvaston, Earl of Harrington;
Etwall, William Cotton, Esq. ;
Ford, Mrs. Holland;
Foremark, Sir Francis Burdett, Bart. ;
Foston, Charles Broadhurst, Esq. ;
Glapwell, Thomas Hallowes, Esq. ;
Glossop Hall, Duke of Norfolk;
Haddon Hall, Duke of Rutland;
Hasland, Thomas Lucas, Esq. ;
Hassop, Earl Newburgh;
Hathersage, A. A. Shuttleworth, Esq. ;
Highfield, V. H. Eyre, Esq. ;
Hilcote Hall, John Wilkinson, Esq. ;

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Holme Hall, Robert Birch, Esq. ;
Holt House, George Mower, Esq. ;
Hopton Hall, Philip Gell, Esq. ;
Hopwell, Thomas Pares, Esq. ;
Ingleby, R. C. Greaves, Esq. ;
Kedleston, Lord Scarsdale ;
Langley Park, Godfrey Meynell, Esq. ;
Leam, M. M. Middleton, Esq. ;
Little Longsdon, James Longsdon, Esq. ;
Little Over, Bache Heathcote, Esq. ;
Locko, Willam Drury Lowe, Esq. ;
Longford Hall, Edward Coke, Esq. ;
Markeaton, Mrs. Mundy ;
Mearsbrook, Samuel Shore, Esq. ;
Measham Field, Edward Abney, Esq. ;
Melbourne, Lord Melbourne; Mellor, Samuel Oldknow, Esq. ;
Millford, G. H. Strutt, Esq. ;
Newton Solney, Abraham Hoskins, Esq. ;
Norton Hall, Samuel Shore, jun., Esq. ;
Norton House, John Read, Esq. ;
Oaks, The, Sir W. C. Bagshaw, Knight;
Ogstone, William Turbutt, Esq. ;
Osmaston, Sir Robert Wilmot, Bart. ;
Overton Hall, Sir Joseph Banks, Bart., P.R.S. ;
Pastures, The, late John Peel, Esq. ;
Radborne, E. S. C. Pole, Esq.;
Renishaw. Sir George Sitwell, Bart. ;
Risley Rev. John H. Hall;
Romeley, Rev. Thomas Hill;
Shardelow, Leonard Fosbrooke, Esq. ;
Shipley Hall, Edw. Miller Mundy, Esq. ;
Smaller, John Radford, Esq. ;
Stainsby, E. S. Sitwell, Esq. ;
Stanton Hall, Bache Thornhill, Esq. ;
Stanton Woodhouse, Duke of Rutland;
Stoke Hall, Hon. John Simpson ;
Stretton, Sir Wm. Cave Browne, Bart. ;
Stubbings, C. D. Gladwin, Esq. ;
Sudbury, Lord Vernon ;
Sutton, Marquis of Ormond ;
Swarkston, Sir Henry Crewe, Bart. ;
Tapton Grove, Avery Jebb, Esq. ;
Thurlston, Samuel Fox, Esq. ;
Tissington, Sir Henry Fitzherbert, Bart. ;
Tupton, W. A. Lord, Esq. ;
Walton, Colonel Disbrowe;
Walton Lodge, Joshua Jebb, Esq. ;
Wheat Hills, Richard Bateman, Esq. ;
Willersley Castle, Richard Arkwright, Esq. ;
Winfield, South, Winfield Halton, Esq. ;
Wingerworth Hall, Sir Thos. Windsor Hunloke, Bart. ;
Wirksworth Gatehouse, Philip Gell, Esq

Produce.-Lead, iron, calamine, coal, limestone, marble, gypsum, fluor-spar, rotten stone, porcelain, pipe and potter's clay, butter, wheat, barley, chamomile, freestone, grindstones, whetstones, manganese, crystals called Buxton diamonds, cheese, valerian, elicampane.

Manufactures.-Stockings. calicoes, thread, silk, iron, spar ornaments, malt, porcelain, ale, worsted, blankets, linen, leather, shoes, hats, agricultural tools, chains, nails, needles, spurs and bridle-bits. The first successful attempt to establish the manufacture of calicoes in this kingdom was made at Derby by Mr. Jedediah Strutt, Mr. (afterwards Sir Richard) Arkwright, and Mr. Samuel Need. The machine for making ribbed stockings was invented by Mr. Jedediah Strutt about the year 1755. The porcelain manufactory was established at Derby by Mr. Duesbury about 1750. The marble works near Bakewell were first established by Mr. Henry Watson, who first formed into ornaments the fluor-spar or Blue John of this county. The first vase made of it (in 1743) is preserved in the museum of his nephew, Mr. White Watson, of Bakewell.


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