Gentleman's Magazine Library, 1731-1868
|English Topography Part III Derbyshire - Dorsetshire
At Allen Hill, in Matlock parish, died Mr. Adam Wolley, 1657,
aged 99, and his wife Grace, 1669, aged 110. They lived together
in marriage 76 years.
In Ashbourne Church, besides the beautiful monument, by Banks,
in memory of Penelope, daughter of Sir Brooke Boothby, 1791, are
many memorials of the ancient family of Cockayne, and the tomb
of Dean Langton, who was killed by his horse falling over a precipice
at Dovedale, 1761. In this town resided and died in 1788 Dr. John
Taylor, the friend of Dr. Johnson.
In Ashford Chapel is a tablet to the memory of Henry Watson, who
first formed into ornaments the fluor-spar of this county, and
In Bakewell Church is a curious ancient monument of Sir Godfrey
Foljambe, 1376, and Avena his wife, 1383, with several memorials
of the Vernons and Manners, and the tomb of Sir Thomas Windesley,
mortally wounded at the battle of Shrewsbury fighting for Henry
Belper Unitarian meeting-house is under the ministry of D. P.
Davies, one of the historians of this county.
At Bolsover, in 1633, Charles I. and his Queen, on their way to
Scotland, were splendidly entertained by the brave and loyal William
Cavendish, Earl (afterwards Marquis and Duke) of Newcastle, the
expense of one dinner only being £
4,000. The poetry and speeches on the occasion were composed by
Ben Jonson. In the church, among several memorials of the Cavendishes,
are the monuments of Sir Charles Cavendish, who founded Bolsover
Castle in 1613, 1617 ; Huntingdon Smithson, the architect of the
castle, 1648 ; and the costly tomb of Henry, second Duke of Newcastle,
Bradshaw Hall was the residence of the Regicide President.
Breadsall was the vicarage of the nonconformist, John Hierom,
biblical critic, abridger of Poole's "Synopsis,"
who died at Loscoe and was buried at Heanor, 1682. In the church
is the monument of Erasmus Darwin, physician, philosopher and poet,
who resided at Breadsall Priory, and died there in 1802.
At Bretby, in 1639, on Twelfth Day, was performed before Philip,
first Earl of Chesterfield, and his second countess,
a masque, written for the occasion by Sir Aston Cockayne.
Carsington was the rectory of the nonconformist, John Oldfield,
author on the Righteousness of the Scribes and Pharisees, and
of Ellis Farneworth, translator of Davila and Machiavel.
In Chaddesden Chapel is a cenotaph for its native, Sir Edward
Wilmot, physician to George II. and George III.
Chatsworth south front, 190 feet long, was begun April 12th, 1687,
William Talman architect. Of this and the west front, 172 feet
long, there are many engravings with plans in Campbell's
"Vitruvius Britannicus." The library, which contains
a very valuable collection of books, is 92 feet, the picture-gallery
nearly 100 feet long. The old gardens, laid out by George London,
were begun in 1688. The waterworks, constructed by Monsieur Guillet,
a Frenchman, in 1690, exhibit an almost unique specimen of what
once was considered a necessary appendage to every noble mansion.
The great fountain throws the water 90 feet high. Another waterwork,
in the shape of a tree composed of copper, has been much noticed.
Marshall Tallard, who was taken prisoner at Blenheim, in 1704,
and remained seven years in this kingdom, having been nobly entertained
by the Duke of Devonshire at this place, on taking his leave said,
" My lord, when I come hereafter to compute the time of my
captivity in England, 1 shall leave out the day of my visit at
Chesterfield was the vicarage of the nonconformist, John Billingsley,
writer against the Quakers, whose son of the same name, author
on Popery and Schism, was minister of the Presbyterian meeting
in this town. Samuel Jebb, learned physician, editor of Justin,
died here in 1772.
At Compton resided and died Thomas Bedford, nonjuror, editor of
Simeon Dunelmensis, and author of " The Historical Catechism."
He was buried at Ashbourne, 1773.
At Cromford is a cotton mill, the machinery of which is described
by Darwin in his "Botanic Garden."
At Derby, Thomas Parker, first Earl of Macclesfield, Lord Chancellor,
practised for many. years as an attorney .- John Whitehurst, the
mechanic and philosopher, lived here forty years.- Wright the painter,
was born, lived and died here.- Here, too, Dr. Erasmus Darwin spent
the last twenty-one years of his life, and composed the major part
of his works. In All Saints' Church, excepting the first Earl,
all the Earls and Dukes of Devonshire of the Cavendish family,
with most of the junior branches, were interred. The most remarkable
monuments are those of Elizabeth, Countess of Shrewsbury, builder
of Chatsworth, Hardwick and Oldcotes, 1608; William, second Earl
of Devonshire (by Marshall), 1628, with Christian, his Countess,
patroness of learned men, and whose life was written by Pomfret.
1675 ; Caroline, Countess of Bessborough, daughter of William,
Devonshire (by Rysbrach), 1760, and her husband,
William, Earl of Bessborough (by Nollekens), 1763. In the vault
lie the remains of the brave and loyal Compton, Earl of Northampton,
slain at Hopton Heath, near Stafford, 1643 ; Colonel Charles Cavendish,
slain at Gainsborough in the same cause, 1643; and Henry Cavendish,
chemist and pneumatic philosopher, 1810. In this church are also
the monuments of Richard Croshaw, a native, who left £4,000
for charitable use, and died of the plague, taken whilst administering
to the relief of the sick poor, 1625; Thomas Chamber, merchant
(by Roubiliac), 1726; Dr. Michael Hutchinson, the curate who obtained £3,249
subscription for rebuilding the church, 1730. Here, too, was interred
Mr. John Lombe, who established the first silk mill in England
in this town and died here 1722.__ln St. Alkmund's was buried,
in 1592, Thomas Ball, aged 110. Its first vicar was Henry Cantrell,
author on the baptism of Charles 1.__George Fox, founder of the
Society of Friends, was imprisoned for nearly a year in this town.
and here, in 1650, according to his journal, they first obtained
the appellation by which they are now generally known. "Justice
Bennet, of Derby," says he, "
was the first that called us Quakers, because I bid him tremble at
the word of the Lord"__ Ferdinando Shaw, author of the life
of his wife, was minister of the Presbyterian Meeting-house, and
after the congregation became Unitarians James Pilkington, the historian
of Derbyshire, was one of their ministers. __Besides the above-mentioned
inhabitants there resided in this town William Chappel, Bishop of
Cork, who died here 1649; Sir Simon Degge, editor of Erdeswick's "Staffordshire";
Anthony Blackwall, author of "Sacred Classics," who was
master of the grammar school; William Butler, M.D., author on Puerperal
Fevers, and Benjamin Parker, author on the Longitude and of "Philosophical
Meditation" In this town also the first silk mill in England
was established by John Lombe, in 1717.
In Edensor Church are the monuments of John Beton, confidential
servant to Mary Queen of Scots, 1570, and William Cavendish,
first Earl of Devonshire of his family, 1625.
In Elmton churchyard was buried its native, Jedediah Buxton, calculator,
In Elvaston Church is the monument of Sir John Stanhope, father
of the first Earl of Chesterfield, 1610.
At Eyam, in 1665, the plague was introduced by some patterns of
tailor's cloth, and in little more than a year there were 260 burials,
but owing to the influence and precautions of its most exemplary
rector, Mr. Mompesson, who remained during the whole time constantly
visiting and praying by the sick, the distemper was confined exclusively
to this village. His amiable wife, who would not leave her husband,
died of the disease in her twenty-seventh year. Eyam was also the
rectory of Thomas Seward, editor of Beaumont and Fletcher, and
father of the Poetess of Lichfield.
In Fenny Bentley Church is the monument of Thomas
Beresford Esq., 1473; he must have lived to a great age, for it
appears by his epitaph that he had a command at the victory of
strenuus dux, fortis et audax,
Francia testatur, curia testis Agen."
At Finderne were buried in one grave, January 14th, 1747, John
Woollet, aged 92, and Sarah Woollet, aged 93, who had lived together,
husband and wife, for sixty years. Here was also interred, in 1754,
Dr. Ebenezer Latham, scholar, who presided over a dissenting academy
in this town, and among whose pupils were Ferdinando Warner, historian
of Ireland, and John Taylor, author of Hebrew Concordance.
Glossop was the vicarage of the nonconformist, William Bagshaw,
"the Apostle of the Peak," who died at Great Hucklow,
in Hope parish, 1702. In the church is the monument of Joseph Hogue,
benefactor to Glossop, and founder of Whitfield School (bust by
At Hardwick died, and at Hault Hucknall was buried, Thomas Hobbes,
the philosopher of Malmesbury.
In Hardwick Hall are many interesting portraits and some needle-work
said to have been done by Mary Queen of Scots.
At Hartshorn was buried its rector, Stebbing Shaw, historian of
In Hathersaye churchyard is the grave of Little John, the coadjutor
of Robin Hood.
Kedleston House was built from the designs of Adam about 1765.
In the entrance-hall, 67 feet by 42, are twenty Corinthian columns
, of veined alabaster, 25 feet .high, brought from Lord Curzon's
quarries at Red Hill, In Nottinghamshire. The house contains a
fine collection of paintings, among which a landscape by Cuyp and
Daneil's Interpretation of Nebuchadnezzar's Dream, by Rembrandt,
are particularly admired. In the church, among numerous monuments
of the Curzons, is one of Sir Nathaniel Curzon, Bart. (by Rysbrach),
At Mapleton, in 1751, died Mary How, widow, aged 112. Her death,
as recorded in the obituary of the Gentleman's Magazine,
"was occasioned by pulling a codling off a tree, the bough
of which fell on her arm and broke it. About two years before she
cut a new set of teeth, and her hair turned from gray to a beautiful
white, and she had a very florid colour."
At Melbourne was a palace of the bishops of Carlisle.
In Melbourne Castle, John Duke of Bourbon, taken prisoner at Agincourt,
was kept in custody nineteen years.
In Morley Church, among the many monuments of the Stathams and
Sacheverels are those of Ralph de Statham, who built the north
aisle of the church, and died 1380, and of his wife Goditha,
who erected the steeple and remainder of the
church, and died 1403.
At Norbury is the monument of Sir Anthony Fitzherbert.
At Ockbrook is a considerable establishment of Moravians. or
"United Brethren," which was formed in 1750.
At Repton School were educated Samuel Shaw, nonconformist divine,
author of "Immanuel"; Stebbing Shaw, historian of Staffordshire;
F.N.C. Mundy, poet of "Needwood Forest"; Jonathan Scott,
translator of "Arabian Nights"; and W. L. Lewis, translator
of Statius. The learned divine and librarian, John Lightfoot, was
its first usher.
Romely Hall was the residence of Dr. Thomas Gisborne, physician
to his Majesty, and President of the College; he died here 1806.
At Roston, in the parish of Norbury, was born the famous fasting
impostor of Tutbury, Ann Moor.
In Sawley Church was buried Roger Bothe, father of Lawrence, Archbishop
of York, and John, Bishop of Exeter.
Snelston, in Norbury parish, was the residence of the Rev. Thomas
Langley, historian of Desborough Hundred, in the county of Bucks,
and who here composed his "Serious Address to the Head and
Heart of every unbiassed Christian." He died in 1804.
South Winfield manor-house was built by Ralph, Lord Cromwell, Lord
High Treasurer to Henry VI. It was afterwards the seat of the Earls
of Shrewsbury, of whom George, the fourth Earl, died here 1541.
In the church was buried Immanuel Halton, mathematician and philosopher,
In Stavely Church, among the monuments of his ancestors, is the
memorial of John, Lord Frecheville, the last of that ancient family,
In Sudbury Church are many monuments of the Montgomerys and Vernons
; among the latter, George Venables, first Lord Vernon, 1780; Hon.
Catharine Venables Vernon (poetical epitaph by William Whitehead,
Poet Laureate), 1775; Hon. Martha Venables Vernon (poetical epitaph
by her sister Elizabeth, Countess of Harcourt), 1808; George Venables,
late Lord Vernon (epitaph by his brother, the Archbishop of York),
In Tideswell Church are the monuments of Sir Sampson Meverel,
warrior under the Duke of Bedford, Regent of France, 1462, and
of its native Robert Pursglove, Bishop of Hull, 1519.
At Tissington, in Mr. Fitzherbert's family, the Rev. Richard Graves
resided three years, and has laid some of the scenes of his "Spiritual
Quixote," in this neighbourhood.
In West Hallam Church is the monument of William Derbyshire, physician
and divine, 1674.
In Whittington Church is the monument of the antiquary, Dr. Samuel
Pegge, who was its resident rector for forty-five years, and
died there in 1796, aged ninety-one. He was a
frequent and most valuable contributor to this magazine, his earlier
papers being generally signed
"Paul Gemsege," the anagram of Samuel Pegge, and the letter
of T. Row, the initials of The Rector of Whittington. He was also
vicar of Heath, and perpetual curate of Wingerworth, in this county.
At Willersley are many paintings by Wright, of Derby; the most
celebrated are a portrait of Sir Richard Arkwright, who died
1792, and a view of Ullswater, which was purchased for 300 guineas.
At Wirksworth Sir Richard Arkwright, inventor of the spinning
jenny, practised as a barber.
In Wirksworth Church, among the many monuments of their family,
are the tombs of Anthony Gell, who founded the school and almshouses,
1583, and Sir John Gell, Parliamentarian general, 1671. At Wooton
Hall, Hume procured a retreat for Jean Jacques Rousseau; where
he lived from March, 1766, to April, 1767. Bronchocele an endemic
complaint of this county.
[1792, Part I., p. 306.];
Permit me to give you some little account of an excursion made
lately by me through part of Derbyshire. We set out from Derby
towards Markeaton, where the house of F. N. C. Mundy, Esq., a
large and not inelegant building, attracted our attention. In
this place were many houses till of late; but the village is
now much on the decline, and the inhabitants removing to Mackworth,
etc. The next view presenting itself is the neat church at the
above place, which we much wished to view the inside of, but
the clerk had just left the place with the keys; we were, therefore,
obliged to have recourse to the windows, through which we could
observe a very handsome chancel, lately repaired and decorated
by Grecian architecture, a little mal-à-propos you
will allow, connected with a light Gothic window; however, it
is better so than damp, ragged, and unwholesome, as too many
village churches are. The parsonage-house stands near the church;
a comfortable, if not an elegant, building. Our route then lay
through the town of Mackworth, at the upper end of which was
once a castle; but nothing now remains except the south gateway,
and that will, I am afraid, soon prostrate itself before all-conquering
Time, though possibly had Time been its only enemy, Mackworth
Castle might still have towered majestic over the village; but
civil wars and uncivil depredators have laid its honours in the
dust. The traces of the foundation are very extensive, and prove
what it once was. From the castle we pro ceeded across the fields
to Kedleston Hall. Lord Scarsdale's grand mansion, beautifully
situated on an elevated piece of ground, disposed in a style
suited to the house, in a great taste, not frittered
and tortured into a number of parts. A noble
piece of water, at some distance before the building, gives an
air of lightness to the whole highly pleasing. The large bridge
across this water, of three arches, and a cascade under it, produces
a charming effect. Near this place rises a fine spring, which is
converted into a fountain c with much taste: a little building,
topped with a pediment, covers a lion, from whose mouth the water
gushes exceedingly rapid. We had not an opportunity of viewing
the inside of Kedleston Hall. but supplied the chasm in examining
the church enveloped by ivy quite to the battlements of the tower:
indeed it appears one mass of ivy in something the shape of a church.
There are several good monuments in it of the Curzon family, some
very ancient, particularly a man in armour, lying on the pavement,
the original situation of ; which we could not discover. An epitaph
in the graveyard for its t' singularity may be worth recording
"EDWARD BASKERVILLE, died Feb. 22,
1715, in the 44th year of his age. He left what he had to
the most charitable uses. Search the Register, and the table
in the church. Glory to God !"
We then proceeded towards Duffield, and passed a very beautiful
specimen of the Gothic, in a temple surrounded by tall trees, now
, neglected. It is inhabited by some country people, who may boast
of a dwelling seldom exceeded in beauty. From the hill where the
temple stands, Duffield presents itself deep in a hollow. Of this
place an account has been given already. Of the road from Duffield
to Derby it may be said that it is pleasant; but nothing occurs
worth notice. During our excursion, which was in February, we saw
a very beautiful butterfly, hovering in the sunshine of destruction,
for a few days after came on the severest weather the winter had
Yours, etc., J. P. MALCOLM