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The Andrews Pages Picture Gallery : Derbyshire
A selection of photographs, prints and postcards. Some have personal or family connections
 
Wingfield Manor (2), during and after the Civil War

"1644 bella horrida bella"

The Latin words in South Wingfield's parish register for 1644, quoted above, makes chilling reading - war horrible war[1].

Following the death in February 1616/7 of Gilbert Talbot, seventh Earl of Shrewsbury, Wingfield Manor passed to the Earl of Pembroke as he had married Talbot's eldest daughter[2]. At the outbreak of the Civil War the Earl garrisoned the Manor for the Parliamentarians[3] but on 19th December 1643 Henry Cavendish, Marquis of Newcastle, captured the Manor for the King following a twelve day siege. When Cavendish moved on from South Wingfield, he left a strong garrison behind him. Sir John Fitzherbert of Tissington was in charge[4]. However, the Parliamentary forces were at Derby and this was a sharp thorn in their side so Sir John Gell of Hopton eventually moved to Wingfield and he, in turn, laid siege to the Manor.

There were several efforts to relieve the Parliamentarian siege but none were successful. Some 200 Royalist soldiers under Colonel Eyre were on their way to Wingfield Manor but took quarters for the night in Boylestone Church. Their whereabouts became known to the Roundheads and a small force led by Colonel Sanders surrounded the building. The Roundheads ambushed them whilst they slept, and ordered to come out one by one. They were seized and stripped of their arms without a shot being fired, and marched to Derby as prisoners[4]. Another force under General Hastings was also driven back. Gell was eventually sent "four great peeces" capable of throwing thirty two pound balls. The wall was breached and the Royalist garrison surrendered on 20 July 1646. Wingfield Manor's governor, Colonel Danby, was shot at point blank range and killed, possibly by a deserter[2]. In 1646 Parliament issued an order to dismantle the fortified mansion.   Window, Wingfield Manor, by J. Gresley, 1863

Outer Courtyard


After the Restoration the manor was bought by Imanuel Halton, a distinguished mathematician, astronomer and musician, who took up residence in 1666[5]. Cox said that in Halton's time parts of the building were unroofed and went into decay, although he converted what had been the banqueting hall into a two storey dwelling[4]. You can see the dwelling behind the trees in the image of the Outer Courtyard (above).

Almost a century later, in 1774, further damage was done to the structure by a descendant of Imanuel Halton's, another Imanuel, who pulled down a considerable part of it and used the stone to erect a house at the bottom of the opposite hill[6]. Halton also died at Wingfield Manor, on 17th February 1784[7].


Another view of the South front of South (Outer) Court, which shows a number of chimneys.


By 1935 the historian Thomas L. Tudor[8] and others were becoming increasingly concerned about the state of the Manor and the matter was referred to the Ancient Monuments Board (H. M. Office of Works) with a report on the "terribly dilapidated and even dangerous state of the ruins". The board was understood to be willing to take over the guardianship, providing the owner agreed. Reportedly, the ruins had been getting worse for some years, parts of the structure already fallen and several ancient chimneys were out of straight and liable to collapse.



Wingfield Manor House, by J. Gresley, 1863.


Wingfield Manor remains in private ownership today but is now looked after by English Heritage. Visitors should be aware that it is a working farm and there are certain areas where photography isn't permitted.


There is more about Wingfield Manor on the previous page


1. "Wingfield Manor", published by Valentine & Sons, Ltd. of Dundee [no date]. From Ward Lock's Guide to "Matlock", 1926-7.
2. "Window, Wingfield Manor", published in The Reliquary, Vol 4 (1863-4).
3. Postcard "Outer Courtyard, Wingfield", published by R. Sneath, Paradise St., Sheffield, The Peak Perfection Series No.22. Not posted. Possibly 1920s.
4. "Wingfield Manor, South front of South Court. Illustration by Nellie Erichsen from Firth[2].
5. Wingfield Manor House", published in The Reliquary, Vol 4 (1863-4).
All images in the collection of, provided by and © Ann Andrews. Researched, written by and © Ann Andrews.
Intended for personal use only.

References:

[1] "South Wingfield Parish Registers & Bishop's Transcripts" (1585 - 1901), 1990, Transcribed by J. Smedley, W. Petford, Derbyshire FHS.
[2] Firth, J. B. (1908) "Highways and Byways in Derbyshire" MacMillan & Co., London.
[3] Cavendish was a leading Royalist. The "Encyclopædia Britannica" [on line] shows that he was created Marquis of Newcastle, then Earl (along with other titles) in the reign of Charles I. Following the Restoration of the monarchy he became a Duke on 16 March, 1665.
[4] Cox, John Charles, (1915, 2nd edition, revised), "Derbyshire" - Illustrated by J. Charles Wall, Methuen & Co., London.
[5] Halton was born at Greystoke, Cumberland. He married Mary, a daughter of Mr. John Newton, of Oakerthorpe, and died at Wingfield Manor on 31 Oct 1699.
[6] Ward, Reverend Richard (1814) "The Matlock, Buxton and Castleton Guide, containing concise accounts of these and other remarkable places ... in the ... County of Derby", Derby. Ward was rather restrained about people's views on the new house, just saying it "was to the regret of the admirers of this once beautiful and interesting Gothic mansion. In comparison, Cox[4] didn't mince his words, saying Halton had built "a square house of appalling ugliness at the bottom of the hill".
[7] "The Derby Mercury", 19 February 1784. "On Tuesday the 17th Inst. died, at Wingfield Manor in this County, Immanuel Halton, Esq; one of his Majesty's Justices of the Peace for this County, and a Captain in our Militia, which Duties he fulfilled with much Credit and Reputation.
[8] Thomas Linthwaite Tudor wrote ""The High Peak to Sherwood, The hills and dales of old Mercia", (1926), published London by Robert Scott.
[9] "Derby Daily Telegraph", 9 July 1935. Wingfield Manor in Imminent Danger of Collapse. Several thousand pounds needed, with an initial outlay of £400.


Also see:
The Wolley Manuscripts, Derbyshire
The Wolley Manuscripts, Matlock
Kelly's Directory of Derbyshire, 1891: South Wingfield, Derbyshire
Derbyshire's Parishes, 1811



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