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Matlock & Matlock Bath: People of the Past
Short biographies or notes about people who have had associations with Matlock and Matlock Bath
Matlock & Matlock Bath Index
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Contributors | Biographies elsewhere on this web site (links below)


Biographies on this page:
ARKWRIGHT | BOWN | BOWNE | BRYAN, B | BRYAN, B |
CAMPBELL | CLARKE | CLAY | CUBLEY | CUMMING, JN | CUMMING, Jas | CUMMING, JG | CUMMING, WJ | CUMMING, Bros of JN
DAWBER | DONEGANI | DOXEY, ED | DOXEY, W |
LOWE | LUDLAM | MAWE | MUMFORD
NEWNES | NIGHTINGALE, F | NIGHTINGALE, P | NIGHTINGALE, P | NUTTALL, G | NUTTALL, J |
PETERS |
RAWLINSON | RAYNER |
SHELMERDINE | SMEDLEY | SMITH | UTTLEY | WALKER

For other surnames mentioned in the text, please use 'Find' on the toolbar.
The names include people who emigrated to Australia, Canada and the United States.

Not here? The Images section may have information about individuals - use Find a Name to locate them

Surnames A
ARKWRIGHT, Sir Richard (1732- 1792)

Sir Richard Arkwright
provided by Ann Andrews
Click to go to a page where there is a larger image The lasting influence of Richard Arkwright's achievements on Great Britain's history should not be under-estimated. Major changes to both society and industry took place during the Industrial Revolution and Arkwright's involvement in and contribution to these changes was enormous. His cotton mills, followed by the building of Willersley Castle, totally changed the parish of Matlock and the surrounding area.

There is a great deal of information already on this site, so there is no short biography about him on this page.

Please see:
Arkwright's Cotton Mill includes biographical details as well as discussing his Masson mill
Kelly's (1891) Directory of Cromford is worth reading
Other Cromford Directories mention Arkwright
There is a pedigree for this family onsite
Details of the Arkwright Coat of Arms
Find the Arkwright surname in Eighteenth Century: Game Duty Lists | Nineteenth Century - Game Duty Lists
Descendants are named in various directories and census returns elsewhere onsite
Masson mill briefly described in "Gem of the Peak"
Extract from "The Beauties of England and Wales" (1802), written shortly after his death, which describes of cotton manufacturing and has more on the mills, Willersley Castle (plus an engraving), Sir Richard Arkwright and the area surrounding Willersley.
Details of "The Derwent Valley Mills and their Communities"

Surnames B
BOWN, James, senior (1737-1811)
BOWN, James, junior (1764-1848)

James Bown is known to have built grandfather clocks but it is not known if just one of the two who made large clocks or whether they both did. However, both were clockmakers and watchmakers in Matlock. There are at least five Bown clocks in private ownership. They have their maker, named as "James Bown, Matlock" or "J Bown Matlock", on the clock face. One also is marked towards the bottom of the face under a flourish (but above the numeral ring) with the initials W H A and with the H inscribed above the W & A, but it is not known what these letters mean.The exact date any of the clocks were made is unknown, but in one clock there is a chalked cleaning date written inside of 1854.

The occupation of clockmaker was recorded against James Bown snr's marriage to Elizabeth Stevenson (1741-1830) of Darley in 1764. Their son, James Bown jnr., is listed in several directories as Bown, James, watchmaker and victualler, Crown Hotel. The former hotel building on the site at the corner of Crown Square and Bakewell Road does not quite occupy the same site as the hotel that James kept, which was a few yards further down the road. James jnr.'s wife was Hannah Longden (1767 -1846), whom he married at Matlock on 4 Oct 1791.

The authority on clocks, Baillie[b1], records Bown, John. Matlock. an[te] 1788. Watch[maker]. The second volume in the series, updated by Brian Loomes[b2], shows James Bowen of Matlock 1835. This probably refers to the 1831 and 1835 entry in Pigot's Directory. From other evidence in parish registers, directories and Wills it can be assumed that both entries are slightly incorrect.

Sarah Bown, who married Sir Joseph Paxton, was a granddaughter of James Bown the elder.

Pigot's 1831 Directory | 1841 census | MI | Pre-1858 Wills

BOWNE, John (1627-1695)

John Bowne was born at Lime Tree Farm, Matlock and baptized at St. Giles Church. He emigrated to the USA about 1649 with his father Thomas and sister Dorothy. He married Hannah Feake (1637-1677/8), the first of his three wives, on 7 May 1656 in Flushing, Long Island. Hannah descended through her mother from Adam Winthrop and Governor John Winthrop was also descended from Adam.

Hannah became a Quaker and John Bowne followed suit. In defiance of Peter Stuyvesant's ban on the Quakers, John Bowne allowed them to meet at his house; they had previously been holding their meetings in the woods of Long Island. The story of John's subsequent arrest by Stuyvesant, his deportation to Holland and his other actions in his stance to keep religious freedom in the colony, including quotations from his journal, used to be found in "No Tip of the Hat" (note: 2011 internet searches find no current links to this information).

Bowne House, John's home in Flushing, New York, was built in 1661 and is one of the oldest buildings in the United States.

See Strays
On other web sites (external links open in a new tab or window):
Bowne House
A History of Flushing Meeting is well worth reading.

BRYAN, Benjamin Snr. (1799-1860)

Also:
BRYAN, Mary, nee Bown (1793-1838)
BRYAN, Henrietta, nee Butler (1817-1879), later Wheatcroft
BRYAN, William (1846-1928)

Benjamin Bryan, the eldest son of William and Jane Bryan, was born in Marylebone, London on 2 Feb 1799 and baptised there on 24 Feb. He married Mary Bown at Broadwater by Worthing in West Sussex on 29 July 1818. Mary was from Matlock Bath and was the fifth child of Anthony Bown and Elizabeth (Woodiwiss or Woodhouse). She was born on 19 Oct 1793 and baptised a month later at the Independent Chapel (see chapel baptisms). The Bown's were the proprietors of the Botanic Gardens in Matlock Bath and Mary's family were involved with the Devonshire Cavern after its discovery in 1824. One cavern proprietor was an E. Bown; whilst this could have been Edwin Bown, Mary's elder brother, it was most probably Mary's mother Elizabeth.

Benjamin became the proprietor of the Devonshire Cavern and part owner of other Caverns, possibly initially through his marriage, and his occupation is often described as "guide". He also leased the Rutland Cavern. However, he was also a journalist and contributed to several local newspapers, including "The Derby Mercury" and "The Derbyshire Courier"; he was sub editor of the latter. He helped those in the community who could not read or write by both reading to them and writing letters on their behalf.

After their marriage Mary and Benjamin had returned to Matlock Bath to set up home. They had four children: Jane, born 1819, William Benjamin (1827-1829), Emily (1829-1854) and Ann, born 1831. Jane married George Scotthorn at Matlock in 1836 and remained in the area until her death at the age of 35, but Ann emigrated to Australia (see MUMFORD Ann).

Mary died in 1838 and was buried at St. Giles (see burial info). Benjamin remarried a year later. His second wife was 18-year-old Henrietta Butler from Alderwasley, the daughter of William and Martha Butler. Benjamin and Henrietta's first son, called Benjamin after his father, was born in 1840. They also had more children: Ellen (b.1841), Agnes (b.1844), William (b.1846), Daniel (b.1848), Joseph (b.1850) and George (b.1852). Benjamin Bryan snr. died at Matlock Bath on 21 July 1860, "much respected and regretted"[b3]. He had proved to be quite a character in the village and was responsible for many firework and other pyrotechnic displays. He even staged a version of "Macbeth" in the Devonshire cavern one winter.

Henrietta was the executrix and sole beneficiary of his Benjamin's Will; he had left her his "mines and parts or shares of mines". She subsequently married Edward Wheatcroft and died at Matlock Bath in 1879. Benjamin, Henrietta and Edward were buried at Matlock.

Benjamin and Henrietta's second son, William, lived above Bryan's Milliners, a shop at the bottom of Holme Road in Matlock Bath, at the top end of North Parade. There was a big workshop at the back of the shop, where about 10 girls were employed and where the hats were made. During the 1914-18 war William sometimes wrote articles for the High Peak News under the pseudonym of BB - the Busy Bee.

Caverns and Mines in 1840 | 1851 census | MIs | Matlock Names in the London Gazette - 1861 (Mrs. Bryan) | Strays
On this page see: BRYAN, Benjamin Jnr. (below) ; MUMFORD Ann.

Upper Tower, Heights of Abraham

BRYAN, Benjamin Jnr. (1840-1914)

Benjamin was the eldest child of Benjamin Bryan Snr. by his second wife Henrietta (nee Butler). His father called him "Penny Post" because his birth date coincided with the introduction of the penny postal rate. Benjamin began his schooling at Mrs. Potter's Dame School on the Dimple, then went to Bonsall Endowed School and finally attended Matlock Green Academy, under the tutelage of William Corden Clarke and his brother Edward.

He joined "The Derby Mercury" in 1853 but the following year was apprenticed to Mr. Thomas Newbold for seven years. By Christmas 1860 he was reporting for the Chronicle, Torquay, moving next to Bideford, then spending two years with the "Essex Times". He returned to "The Derby Mercury" in 1864 and from there moved to Blackburn to edit "The Patriot" on Wednesdays and "The Standard" on Saturdays. He spent some time in Canterbury editing "The Kentish Gazette". He went back to Blackburn for a while but then became Secretary to the Anti Vivisection Society in London. Clearly interested in archaeology as well as local history, he submitted some articles to the Derbyshire Archaeological Journal. His major work was a history of his birthplace: Benjamin Bryan (1903) History of Matlock - Matlock, Manor and Parish published in London and Derby by Bemrose & Sons, Limited.

Benjamin married Annie Boden in 1866; there were no children of the marriage. He returned to Derbyshire after his wife's death and died at Belper in 1914. He was buried at Matlock.

See Strays
On this page see: BRYAN, Benjamin Snr. (above); MUMFORD Ann

Surnames C
CAMPBELL, Willielma, Viscountess Glenorchy (1741-1786)

Lady Glenorchy's association with Matlock Bath came about by accident, when she passed through the village whilst travelling. She was forced to stop when her carriage broke down. Her background was totally unconnected to Derbyshire. She was the younger daughter of William Maxwell of Preston, Kirkcudbright, Scotland and widow of John, lord Viscount Glenorchy (the eldest son of the 3rd Earl of Breadalbane). Lady Glenorchy held strong religious beliefs that were a mixture of Scottish Presbyterian and Methodist. She built several chapels and she founded one in Matlock Bath. The chapel eventually became a Congregational chapel.
See Glenorchy (Independent) Chapel

CLARKE, Charles (30 Aug 1788-13 Apr 1863)

Charles Clarke, who was deputy lieutenant of the county when he died, was born at Duffield. He was an attorney by profession with the firm of Messrs. Mousley and Clarke of Derby. During the 1820s he lived at Greenhill House, Derby, moving to Matlock Bath after the death of his father in law, Adam Wolley. Charles had married Anne Wolley at Bromley in Kent on 2 Aug 1821 and the couple lived at Masson House (also referred to as Masson Lodge), her parent's former home overlooking Masson Mill and Cat Tor. Anne and her sister, Mary Hurt (later Wolley), were co-heiresses of the Wolley estate.

In 1828 Charles was Steward of the Wirksworth copyhold court and in 1842 was appointed as one of the Commissioners for the Hundred of Wirksworth to execute the Property and Income Tax Act in the County of Derby. He was also a Justice of the Peace.

As many landowners of the time did, he applied annually for Game Certificates. He was elected, with other Derbyshire residents, as a Member of the Royal Agricultural Society for England on 8 Feb 1843. He was also on the Management Committee of the Nottingham, Erewash Valley, Ambergate and Manchester Railway in 1845 and in September of that year became a provisional director of the company.

Both Charles and his wife were active in the community. When Queen Victoria's marriage took place on 10 Feb 1840 the village celebrated. "Mrs. Clarke, the lady of our worthy magistrate, gave tea on their beautiful terrace in front of the mansion, to our Infant school children" ("Derby Mercury"). A brass commemorative tablet in the church shows she always cared about the parish and its needs.

Charles was buried at Holy Trinity on 18 April 1863; his Will was proved at the Principal Registry in 1863 by his nephew Charles Harwood Clarke of Lincoln's Inn Fields. Anne survived Charles by over twenty years and she was buried at the church on 21 Oct 1885, aged 82. The executor of her Will was another nephew, Frederick F Clarke of Walsall who advertised Masson House for sale in 1886. The property was bought by Mr. Hubbersty, of "The Ford", for £3,400.

1851 Census | 1861 Census - J.P. | 1871 Census | 1881 Census
Pedigree of Wolley | The Wolley Manuscripts | Property described in "Gem of the Peak", 1840 | MIs
His name was included in the following trade directories: Pigot 1831 | Pigot 1842 | Whites 1852 | Whites 1857 | Whites 1862
Also see: Nineteenth Century - Game Duty Lists | Return of Owners of Land 1873 | Magistrates

CLAY, Francis (1806-1888)

An ironmonger of Matlock Green, Francis ran a family business that had been established in 1783 and which held a "large stock of ironmongery". The range of goods for sale included cooking ranges, mantel shams, locks, coffin furniture (this last was available "written and engraved on the shortest of notice"). He also sold household goods, powder and cartridges for guns, gardening tools, joiners' tools and seed. He was the elder son of Francis Clay of Bonsall and Crich by his second wife Martha (nee Crook) and was born at Lea Hill. During the 1830s he is believed to have been on a Grand Tour of Italy. He farmed at Dethick before moving to Matlock. His wife, Margaret, was one of the daughters of George Hodgkinson, the Matlock postmaster up to 1844. The couple had 6 children and 24 grandchildren, some of whom emigrated to Canada.

CUBLEY, Henry Hadfield (1858-1934)
Old Matlock
Pic Tor
The Old Bridge
Matlock Church
Matlock Bank
Riber Hall
High Tor 1887
Heights of Abraham
Ferry House
The Derwent
Church & Boat House
Lea Hurst

Henry Hadfield Cubley was born in Newark, NTT, on 30 Oct 1858. He was the son of Samuel Ward Cubley, a Nottingham born painter and gilder, and his wife Jane Elizabeth (nee Willey). Henry was their eldest son; he had two elder sisters and several younger siblings[c1]. In 1881 he was living with his married sister, brother in law and a younger sister in Box, Wiltshire and described himself as a landscape painter[c1].

Cubley painted several pictures of Wolverhampton. He married Julia Gertrude Palmer at St. Jude's, Wolverhampton on 16 September 1886[c2]. They were living at Montpellier (now The Firs), in Matlock Bath, by 1887. His two daughters were baptised at Holy Trinity, Gladys Gertrude on 25 Aug 1887 and Kathleen Doris Palmer on 30 July 1891[c2].

He exhibited his work between 1882 and 1904 both locally, at the Bath's Assembly Rooms and Derby Corporation Art Gallery, and further afield. According to various nineteenth century newspapers he exhibited both watercolours and oil paintings. For example, on 17 Jan 1900 "The Derby Mercury" reported the 13th annual exhibition of Derby sketching club and said that among the 69 hung "are many of outstanding merit, prominent amongst them being the works of ... Mr Hadfield Cubley ... most attractive work is probably his "Morning, near Arrochar" [a watercolour]. [Also] ... a nice canvas, "Near Matlock".

Matlock and Matlock Bath scenes were subjects for his paintings. Derbyshire featured too, including Ashbourne Grammar School, Buxton and Dovedale. His paintings were turned into postcards by Ralph Tuck and Sons. He painted Highland cattle whilst visiting Scotland, Bettws Y Coed in Wales, Barmouth, Newark - the list of his subjects is seemingly endless. His characteristic backwardly sloping signature appeared at the bottom, and usually on the left, on all his work. Where he wished to add some human interest to his paintings he liked to include his wife and daughters and they can be seen in a wide cross section of his work. His trademark, though, was to include a small patch of scarlet or other shade of red. Of the thirty-two paintings he executed of Matlock and Matlock Bath scenes, distinctive patches of red have been noted on thirty of them[c3].

Whilst living in Matlock Bath he played his part in village life. He stood as a candidate In the district council elections of 1896 and 1899 and as elected as one of the four men to represent Matlock Bath. He also attended Holy Trinity Church and seems to have been a lay preacher.

Although it is unclear exactly when he left the area, he did not advertise in the local trade directories after 1908. He experienced some financial problems, as did other residents, at around this time. By 1911 and he was living in Longsdon, near Leek[c4]. He died, aged 75, in 1934[c2].

Julia Gertrude also worked as a landscape painter and she exhibited, as Gertrude Cubley, between 1887 and 1903. She died, aged 91, in 1948. Both daughters studied art. Gladys married in 1921 and lived until 1978; Kathleen did not marry until 1941 and died in 1981.

"Kelly's Directory of Derbyshire": 1891 | 1895 | 1899 | 1908. He was also listed in 1887, but this is not transcribed
1891 census | 1901 census
Church records - inscriptions at Holy Trinity, Matlock Bath


Elsewhere on
this web site›
Cromford
Church & Bridge

Haddon Hall (2)
  

Haddon Hall (3)
Haddon Hall (4)
  
CUMMING, Joseph Notzel (1781-1820)

In September 1806 it was announced that both the Old Bath and the Temple were to be let[c5]. A few months later, in February 1807, the following notice was published by the new tenant:

"Having taken the Old Bath for a Term of Years, [J. Cumming] most respectfully solicits the patronage and support of the Nobility and Public in general, and assures them that nothing in his power shall be wanting to make it as comfortable as any house in the Kingdom. Independent of the Natural Baths that are present in the house, it intended immediately to erect one which may be heated to any temperature. There will be regular Assemblies for the accommodation of the Company in the House, and of the Families resident in the Neighbourhood"[c5].

Joseph Notzel Cumming was one of the sons of James and Alice Cumming; he was born in London on the 11 July 1781 and baptised at Saint Leonard's, Shoreditch, on 5 Aug 1781. His father was in the spa hotel business and the boy was brought up in Buxton, at least in his later childhood. He had 3 brothers and a half-brother, John. Alice Ann Cumming, found in Matlock records, was Joseph's niece; she lived at the Old Bath for some years, presumably working for the family. Her elder sister, Mrs. Mary Elizabeth Bates, lived in Buxton. Thomas Tyack (b.1835/6 in Chasewater, CON), who was at both the New Bath Hotel and the rebuilt Old Bath Hotel towards the end of the nineteenth century, was linked to this family by marriage[c6].

Joseph married Mary Barnes at Chesterfield on 18 Nov 1805. The couple had 3 sons, James, Joseph George and William John, as well as a daughter Elizabeth who married Simeon Clayton.

He died on Tuesday 11th April, 1820 at the Old Bath; "About the same hour his wife gave birth to a son"[c5]. Joseph's widow Mary Cumming (1786-1842), then took over the hotel's management and remained at the Old Bath for a further 22 years. She died at Matlock Bath, "regretted by all who new her, Mrs. Mary Cumming, many years landlady of the Old Bath Hotel"[c5].

The lives of some of Joseph's family - his brothers and children - were quite eventful (see below).

See J N Cumming's name in Nineteenth Century - Game Duty Lists
Burial - Joseph and Mary Gosling Cumming (both 1820) | 1841 census | Burial - Mrs. Mary Cumming | Wills
Trade Directory entries for Mrs. Cumming (under Matlock Bath): Glover 1827/8/9 | Pigot 1828-9 | Pigot 1831 | Pigot 1842 |
The Old Bath was a venue for property sales in the 18th century (see London Gazette) and a place where officials met in the 19th century. It was sold in 1857 and in 1869 the Hydropathic Company was wound up.
There were some problems after Mary Cumming died. See William John Cumming in the London Gazette in 1843 and Alice Ann Cumming in 1853.

Card of the Old Bath, 1840s

CUMMING, James, LSA, MRCS (27 Sep 1806-16 Jan 1852)

He was the eldest child of Joseph and Mary. He was apprenticed to James Dawson, an apothecary of Liverpool, in 1823 for 5 years. He was examined by the Royal College of Surgeons in London in 1828 and qualified MRCS[c7]. In 1831 his brother William John became his apprentice[c7]. James was then living at Tavistock Square, London[c7] and was still there two years later, when he was living at No. 28[c8].

When James returned to Derbyshire he practised surgery in Ashford and then Buxton[c6]. He was recorded at the latter in 1837: "The Buxton Bath Charity resolved, at a General Meeting in the Great Hotel, to accept the offer of the professional services of "James Cumming, Esq., Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons"[c9]. In the 1851 census his occupation was given as General Practitioner and Member of the Royal College of Surgeons.

He married Mary Ann MacDonald and the couple had ten children. James drowned, together with one of their sons, in a tragic rowing boat accident in the River Derwent near Masson Mill when the river was in flood. The pair, as well as James's wife who died shortly afterwards, are buried at St. Giles.

His baptism | Burials at Matlock
For more on the very sad events that overtook this family see Newspaper Cuttings | Subscription for the relief of the Cumming children, 1852
Matlock Bath: Boating on the River Derwent, 1914 mentions James and his son
Bryan's book[1] gives a full account of the drowning accident, which can be emailed to anyone who is interested in reading it.

CUMMING, Joseph George (b. Matlock 15 Feb 1812 and d. 21 Sep 1868)

The second son of Joseph and Mary. He attended Oakham Grammar School and Emmanuel College, Cambridge, gaining his M.A. in 1837[c10]. He was admitted to Holy Orders in 1835[c10] and at various times was curate to his uncle James at North Runcton; classical master at West Riding Prep. School; vice-principal of King William's College, Isle of Man (he was there for fifteen years); Master of King Edward's School, Lichfield; warden & professor of classical literature at Queen's College, Birmingham; rector of Mellis, Suffolk; and vicar of St John's, Bethnal Green, London where he died in the vicarage. Published several books including "The Great Stanley" and "The Isle of Man ; its History, Physical, Ecclesiastical, Civil, and Legendary". He married Agnes Peckham in 1838 and they had six children.

His baptism
View the Isle of Man site for more on JG Cumming.
He is listed in the Dictionary of National Biography.

CUMMING, William John (2 Dec 1814-1864)

The youngest son of Joseph and Mary. He was apprenticed to his brother James Cumming of Tavistock Square (see above) in 1831 as an Apothecary for 5 years, attending lectures from October 1832. He spent 18 months at Westminster General Dispensary; D N A (?) dated 7 July 1836; he was examined in 1836 and became MRCS[c7].

He practised as a surgeon, initially in Matlock Bath. His wife, Susan (nee Hall), ran a girls' school in Matlock Bath with her sister. In 1839 the school was at Belle Vue House, but by 1840 they had moved to the Lower Tower and remained there for two more years[c11]. They later lived in Northampton and then in Olney, Buckinghamshire.

William John Cumming died of yellow fever at Newborn (New Bern), North Carolina, USA in an epidemic which killed 1300 people during the American Civil War[c6]. It took quite a while to work out why he ended up involved in a war so far from home.

In October 1863 William John Cumming had been found guilty of stealing a book from W. H. Smith's stall at King's Cross Station and was sentenced to be imprisoned in the House of Correction for six months[c12]. Presumably, knowing he would be unable to work as a surgeon in the U.K. after his release from prison, he decided to try his luck in the United States where surgeons were in great demand. Under the 29th section of the Medical Act he was deemed to be a "delinquent" and the General Medical Council announced they were to erase his name from the register in late 1866 as he had been convicted of felony. This additional punishment was somewhat late in the day as he had died two years before[c13]!

His baptism | 1841 census | Pigot's Directory 1842 | Strays |

CUMMING, Brothers of Joseph Notzel

CUMMING, George William (1784[c6] - 26 Jun 1823)

Brother of Joseph Notzel Cumming. Captain, RN. He was wounded on Lord Exmouth's expedition to Algiers in 1816. He married Charlotte Sophia Cumming on 9 Apr 1820 at St. Marylebone, London and the couple had a daughter, Charlotte Atherton Cumming, who was baptised at St. Giles' (see baptism). Her father's occupation was given as Lt RN at that time and they resided in Matlock Bath. Captain Cumming died in London and was interred at St. James', Lambeth, on 1 Jul 1823[c6]. His widow remarried in 1826.

CUMMING, James, FRS, FGS (b. 24 Oct 1777-10 Nov 1861)

Brother of Joseph Notzel Cumming. Professor of Chemistry at Cambridge University. Rector of North Runcton, near Lynn, Norfolk[c6]. His appointment as Rector was announced in 1819: "The Rev. James Cumming was lately instituted to the Rectory of North Runcton with Hardwick and Setchy, in this county, on the presentation of the Master and Fellows of Trinity-coll. Camb."[c14]. Published several learned papers & books including "A Manual of Electro-dynamics". He died at North Runcton, NFK. It is not known if he was ever directly associated with Matlock Bath although he clearly played a part in the career of one of his brother's sons.

North Runcton website | More about Victorian North Runcton
He is listed in the Dictionary of National Biography.

CUMMING, William George (1787 -1813)

The youngest brother of Joseph Notzel Cumming. Officer in the British Army. Born at Burlington House, London and shot dead at Anhoa (near Bayonne) in the Peninsular War[c6].
Read his Memorial in Matlock Church, commissioned by his brothers. It used to be thought that the monument was erected by only one brother, but recent cleaning has shown it was erected by his brothers, though whether some or all of them is not known.
There are slight differences in references to the date William Cumming was killed. See, for example, British Army Officer Casualties 1808-14. The place of death also varies slightly and includes Anhoa (given above) and Aubo. These could be the village of Ainhoa near Bayonne[c6].

Surnames D
DAWBER, Sir Edward Guy, A.R.A., R.A.

Guy Dawber was born in Kings Lynn, NFK in Q3 1861, the son of John Stockdale Dawber (d. 1898) and his wife Lois Ellen (née Edwards). When, as a young man, he was sent to work on a great house at Basford, GLS he seized the opportunity to study the local architecture of the Cotswolds and his designs reflect his interest in traditional rather than contemporary buildings. According to Who Was Who, his speciality was laying out and designing gardens. He was also a painter in water colour. Dawber was the architect who designed the Arts and Crafts style St. John's chapel of ease in Matlock Dale as well as the cottages at the bottom of St. John's Road and his parents lived locally. He played a prominent part in establishing the Council for the Preservation of Rural England in 1926 and became the first President. He was also President of the British School of Architecture (1925-7), was awarded the Gold Medal (1928) and was knighted on 15 July 1936. He married Mary Eccles in Lancashire in 1896. He died in London on 24 April 1938 and is commemorated at St. Giles with his parents and brother.

Churches & Chapels | St. John's Church, Cliff Road | Dawber family Memorial Inscriptions

Cottages, Matlock Dale, 1899

DONEGANI, Joseph Francis (1850-1933)

Joseph Francis Donegani
reproduced here courtesy of 
Douglas Donegani.
Click this image for a larger photograph The son of a professor of music who had in his youth fought at the the Battle of Waterloo, Joseph Francis Donegani married Pamela Fisher on February 10, 1874 in Mark Church, Somerset. The family moved to Belle Vue House in Matlock Bath shortly before 1900. By that time Joseph Francis was a local butcher and had become a Councillor on the Matlock Bath and Scarthin Nick Urban District Council. He was in charge of the milk and bread rationing during WW1.

Below are extracts from his obituary[d1]:

.... "A native of Bath, Mr. Donegani came to Derbyshire in 1880 as an estate agent to the Right Hon. Robert William Hanbury, M.P., Ilam Hall, Dovedale and whilst there he made several important purchases of land which added to his employers' beautiful estate. Notable amongst these acquisitions were parts of Thorpe Pastures and Thorpe Cloud".

"Displaying a deep interest in all matters agricultural, Mr. Donegani was instrumental in inaugurating Ashbourne branch of the Derbyshire Dairy Farmers' Association, being chairman for the first nine years of its existence. He was the pioneer of the Dove Dale Sheep Dog Trials, and was an exhibitor at Ashbourne Agricultural Show when it was quite a small affair. When he left the District in 1882 a banquet in his honour "was given at the Green Man Hotel, Ashbourne, and he was presented with a purse of gold.

After leaving Ashbourne Mr. Donegani farmed at Brightgate, Bonsall, "but a few years later he moved to Matlock Bath, where he commenced to take a keen interest in local affairs. He was elected a member of the old Matlock Bath Urban Council, on which he served for 25 years, and for a considerable time he was chairman of the Finance Committee. A keen Conservative, Mr. Donegani was president of Matlock Bath Unionist League at the time of his death, and he was formerly the president and secretary to the local Conservative Club. He was election agent to Lord Kerry and later to the Marquess of Hartington at Matlock Bath. His other activities included a sidesman at the Parish Church, and a member of the Matlock Bath Bowling Club".

"Mr. Donegani and his father held a somewhat unique position in the Masonic world. His father was a member of the 4th Dragoon Guards Lodge, Yorks., so far back as 1817, and between them they held a record of 116 years' unbroken membership of the craft. Mr. Donegani was worshipful master of the St. Oswald Lodge, Ashbourne in 1887, and in the following year he was elected an officer of the Provincial Grand Lodge".

Pamela and Joseph Francis Donegani had 12 children (one died in infancy). To celebrate their golden wedding in 1924, "Mr. and Mrs. Donegani made a voyage to Canada to visit four of their sons, who hold important posts in the Dominion. Their other son, Mr. Oswald Donegani, is manager of the Bournemouth Pavilion".

At the funeral service on April 26th 1933 the vicar talked of "the splendid example Mr. Donegani had set at Matlock Bath. He was, he said, an exemplary sidesman and he was always a most conscientious and helpful officer".
(Douglas Donegani)

1901 Census | Matlock Bath Business Letterheads | Kelly's Directory (1908) | Kelly's Directory (1916) Matlock Bath | MIs | Photos of Matlock Bath Today (3) | World War 1 Newspaper Cuttings, 1917 | Matlock Bath & Scarthin Newspaper Cuttings, 1939 |

Portrait of the DONEGANI family

DOXEY, Eliza Dorothy, nee Howe (1806-1888)

Eliza Dorothy was the daughter of John Howe and Mary (nee Holmes) of Ashford in the Water. Mary's death, leaving John with seven children, plus his failing business as a Tallow-chandler, left him in sore straits. Below are slightly edited extracts taken from "A Short Biography of a Derbyshire Woman" by Eliza's grandson, Alfred Doxey, in 1890 (John Palmer's grandfather).

Eliza, then only 13, had to face the world in search of a livelihood. ...

Eliza had many trades: she was a candle maker and deliverer for her Father when a girl; a domestic servant as a cook in some good families in Manchester, Nottingham and York; a maker of Umbrella tops for the noted firm of Pickerings in Nottingham; a dressmaker when first married; then a school mistress; then a manufacturer of fustian coats in Middleton and the old smock frocks which used to be worn in Derbyshire; a schoolmistress again for nine years in Rotherham where she had scholars half time from a Mill; later a trimmer of hosiery for John Smedley at Lea Mills where she trimmed some red silk Merino shirts for the Exhibition of 1851. She kept a little shop at Matlock Bank and a Toll Gate at Wensley. Adaptability to existing requirements seems to have been a prominent characteristic of her temperament.

Eliza was married to William Doxey at Bradbourne in 1833 and afterwards lived in a very small cottage at Middleton. ... Later she moved to Lea where she looked after the poultry at the home for her Aunt Mrs. Sims and for which she had her cottage rent free for 18 years after which she moved to Matlock. ... William's earnings as a lead miner were very small and while with Eliza's help and economical management the home was maintained in comfort, there remained little or no surplus funds to be devoted to the acquisition of books and other literature so necessary to one of her tasks and accomplishments.

Notwithstanding, she continued to amass a mine of matter Poetical, literary, and antiquarian. Possessed of a most tenacious memory and the knack of selecting out matter most appropriate to any subject under discussion, while rendering her a dangerous antagonist, furnished a most enjoyable entertainer, and her society was in consequence sought by people much more fortunately placed in circumstances. ... Eliza was a Churchwoman and never went to Chapel until she was about 50 years of age. ... Eliza had a family of two sons, William and Alfred. In 1890 another Alfred Doxey wrote about his Grandmother: "My earlier recollections of her are when keeping the little Toll Bar House at Wensley near Darley Bridge. ... A Grandfather clock stands in one corner, an old oak corner chair in another, which chair after having been handed down through several generations of Alfred's, now remains in my possession.

A portrait of Miss F. Nightingale hangs on the wall, a small brass table stands on the secretaire and a stone box carved by my Uncle Alfred rests on the mantelpiece.

There is the bright oak coat rack, gofering iron, and miscellaneas assortment of odds and ends characteristic of an English homestead. Grandfather is seated on the sofa carefully selecting straws which are then threaded through the band of his hat to be used for shot-firing at Mill Close Mine on next shifts.

... Eliza Dorothy died at 11.30 on the night of January 25th 1888 aged 81. ... Her son William writes "She was a true Theosophist, thinking of others always, never of self. So she is now reaping what she has sown...good."
(John Palmer)

1851 census | 1881 census
Transcripts of extracts from her letters, by John Palmer, are on the Wirksworth website. She was his 4xg grandmother.

DOXEY, Walter (1867-1931)

Although not strictly a biography, the letter below provides an insight into the life and interests of a Victorian young man.

Letter from Walter to his brother Alfred (1865-1933).

Bank Rd
Matlock
May 26th [18]95

Dear Alfred,

I arrived home all safe & sound on Monday last, my machine I am pleased to say behaved splendidly on the journey. I found on examining my machine on Monday before starting I found the nut that goes on the pin in the clip to seat stalk was split in four places. I took this to Vick & he said he would send for another at once. Will you be so kind as to call sometime when you pass & see if he has got this for me. He said he thought the other one would hold till I got home & strange to say it did so falling in two while I was cleaning my machine next day. I have fastened it together with the help of a little copper wire & fine solder & it might last a long time but of course it is a weak point. I enjoyed my holiday last weekend very much it always feels so much like coming home to come to your house & I always feel that I am both comfortable & welcome a feeling that I am sorry to say does not impress me in most places I go to visit. However I hope before the summer is over we may be able to get a good few runs in together. I had a run to Ashford in the Water last Thursday night the journey up being against the wind took just 1 hour of course this was in daylight & easy riding I rode all over the village had a look in the church yard etc & then lit up & started home at a pretty good pace. At exactly 9 o'clock when I got over Haddon Bridge I found the handles had skidded about 8 inches out of true this I had to dismount & remedy but in spite of this & the fact that I had to keep turning up my lamp to keep it lit & straightening my handles as I rode I arrived home at exactly 20 minutes to ten - 9/40 - the journey of 13 or 14 miles taking 40 minutes (what about solids). On Saturday I put two small pieces of pin steel in the handle clip & in my journey to Arbor Low in the afternoon over the roughest roads it has ever been my lot to ride they never gave once being as straight at the journeys end as at the start. We can have a talk about the Druidical Remains when you come over as I must cut this letter short. Father, Eliza, Lucy and I have been to Via Gellia getting lillies this afternoon we got quite a nice lot but it is terribly hard work to the feet. I am writing this while my feet soak in hot water to get rid of the soreness in my toes. Don't think I have got gout or if I have it is not mangy gout. Although I had plum pudding for dinner today I never thought of this it must have got in my toe ends. But I shall have to bring my epistle to a close as it is time I went to roost. We are expecting to see you over this week end Sat if possible but if you cannot get that day Gerty & William we expect to see & if you send word what time you will start on your machine I will try and meet you at Baslow. But must conclude hoping you are all quite well we are all pretty & well at home at present I am pleased to say. So with love hoping to see you all soon

I remain
Your affectionate brother,

Walter

A photo exists of Walter's bike, which has solid tyres, fixed wheel and single brake pressing on rear tyre, operated by pneumatic pipe connecting to rubber bulb under handlebar
(John Palmer)

1871 Census | 1891 Census (Walter), living on New Street

Surnames L
LOWE, Rev. Adam (1840-1824)

Adam Lowe was born in Salford on 10 December 1840 and was christened at Manchester Cathedral on 2 Jan 1841. His parents, Joseph and Mary, lived in Gravel Lane in Salford. Joseph was a Master Milk Seller and both he and his wife had been born in Derbyshire, at Chapel en le Frith. Adam was educated at Manchester Cathedral School. By 1861 he was working as a Warehouseman in Flixton for his brother in law Adam Stott, a cotton manufacturer. He then went to Jesus College, Cambridge, graduating with a B.A. in 1869; his M.A. degree was conferred in June 1873[l1].

He was admitted into Holy Orders at Aukland Castle, Durham, in 1869; he was initially a Deacon but the following Christmas was ordained as a Priest[l1]. He became the Curate of Esh in Durham and from there went to Edale[l2]. He "gave up a well-endowed living ... to undertake a mission[l1]" in Matlock, where he arrived in 1877. He conducted services in the school, which had been erected two years before, and part of his duties was set about raising money to build All Saints' Church. He was to be the first Vicar of the new church on Matlock Bank.

Amongst the Ecclesiastic Appointments listed in "The Times" in January, 1885 was the Rev. Adam Lowe, incumbent of Holy Trinity [sic], Matlock Bank. In June 1886 he was granted a Licence to a Perpetual Curacy, with his Patron being the Bishop of Southwell.

He was not the only member of his family in Holy Orders. One of his brothers, Joseph, was the Vicar of Haltwhistle, Carlisle.

Rev. Lowe did not marry. He retired in 1911 and died in Matlock in 1924. He was buried at St. Giles'.

Churches & Chapels | 1881 census | 1891 census | 1901 census

LUDLAM, William (-1655)

"William Ludlam, of Matlock, Derbyshire, England, came to America about the year 1640, landing at Boston or Lynn, Mass. Settled at Southampton, L.I., and was a miller and farmer there. He purchased the mill at Watermill, Southampton, in 1652. It was owned by his descendants until 1733. He died at Southampton in 1665, and was buried there. His Will was the first Will recorded in the Surrogate's Office in New York City. It was dated April 27, 1665, was proved June 7, 1665, and recorded October 5, 1665. He married Clemence"[l3].

According to another source "The earliest established date for the family in America was 1648, when in July his [William's] eldest two children arrived in the ship Triall." William's brother in law, Robert Fordham of Hertfordshire, had left England some years before and it is believed William emigrated after his wife, Clemence, died in 1647 [sic], arriving in Boston in 1647. William's descendants live in the USA[l4]. Clemence's burial was recorded in Matlock's register on 16 Aug 1646.

Strays

Surnames M
MAWE, John (b. 1764-d. London, 26 Oct 1829)

The life of the famous mineralogist was not without drama and Mawe spent 15 years at sea as a young man but, at the end of the eighteenth century, he toured many mines in both England and Scotland and collected minerals for the King of Spain. Imprisoned as an English spy in Montevideo (1805-6) he then visited the Brazilian diamond mines (1809-10). On his return to London in 1811 he opened his first shop in the Strand and became a well known practical mineralogist. He also joined Messrs. Brown & Sons of Derby as a partner - they had bought a house in Matlock Bath around 1810 which Mawe subsequently purchased from them. Mawe's original museum in Matlock Bath was on South Parade, in the house that has a very large bay window and had earlier been part of an hotel (though the window wasn't there at the time of the hotel). In 1835 his stock, of expensive items, was large and included " a fine assortment of Derbyshire spar and marble ornaments after the most approved antique shapes, executed in the best of styles by Derbyshire workmen, copies of the obelisks of Rameses and Cleopatra ..."[1]. Marble turning was in its prime at that time. Mawe gave lessons in mineralogy and published a book on precious stones. After his death his widow (Brown's daughter) took over the business. It was first managed by Mr. Vallance and then by Mr. Adam, the author of "Gem of the Peak", who then purchased the premises. Mawe is buried at St. Mary in the Strand, London and commemorated on a memorial at Castleton.

Extracts from "Gem of the Peak" | Public Notices & Announcements, 1832 | Matlock Names in the London Gazette - 1818

MUMFORD, Ann (1831-1876)

The youngest child of Benjamin Bryan snr. by his first wife, Mary Bown, Ann was born in Matlock Bath. In 1850 Ann gave birth to an illegitimate daughter named Matilda (see baptism, 1850) who died at Steeple Grange, Wirksworth in 1852. She then married Andrew Stevens, a Steam Power Engineer, in 1853 at Penzance, Cornwall. By the end of that year she arrived, with her husband, at The Burra copper mines in South Australia. In the grim, hot and God forsaken copper mining town she befriended a shepherd by the name of John Johnson and deserted her husband. She and John Johnson, who was from Hamburg in Germany, headed for the Victorian gold fields where she had two children by him before they, too, separated. Ann then met Frederick Walter Mumford, who was from Essex, and had three more children before she died - as Ann Mumford - in 1876 at Sandhurst in Victoria, today named Bendigo. Her husband, Andrew, predeceased her in 1873 at Kadina in South Australia.
(Dieter Retz)

See Strays
On this page see: Surnames B : BRYAN; BRYAN, Benjamin Snr.; BRYAN, Benjamin Jnr.

Surnames N
NEWNES, Sir George (1851-1910)

The founder of the weekly "Tit-Bits" journal was born at Glenorchy House, Matlock Bath. His father was the Independent Minister Thomas Mold Newnes and his mother was Sarah (nee) Unquart. One month old George and five of his siblings, some of whom were later interred at St. Giles, can be found living with their parents in the 1851 census. The family moved away, but some of them returned to Matlock before 1881, by which time George was married and living in Stretford, LAN with his wife Priscilla (nee Hillyard) and their two sons.

At the time of the census he was running an "Eating House" and was described as a Restaurant Proprietor Employing 12 Women and 1 Boy. It was not long after then, having scraped together some money, that he produced the first "Tit-Bits" paper in the October of that year. Unbelievably, he sold 5,000 copies in under two hours, a notable achievement. The paper became extremely popular and Newnes moved his offices to London.

George had been at school in Wakefield with William Thomas Stead, who was later to perish on the Titanic. It was Stead's suggestion that Newnes brought out the "Review of Reviews" in 1890 and Stead was his editor, but the two parted company not long afterwards. Newnes then became involved with the "Strand" magazine and later the "Westminster Gazette", along with other publications the most noteworthy of which is probably "Country Life". He'd become a Liberal M.P. in 1885 and he represented Newmarket for ten years, later representing Swansea from 1900-1910. He was knighted in 1895.

He hadn't forgotten his birthplace and became involved with forming the limited company for and then building the cable car which ran up Bank Road. He "bought out the other shareholders and presented the tramway and its belongings to the local Urban District Council, as representing the people of Matlock[1]". This was in 1898 and the tramway continued to run until 1927. Newnes died at Lynton, Devon, where he'd already built a cliff railway prior before becoming involved with the project at Matlock.

1851 census | Independent Chapel | Parents in 1881 | Brother and sister in 1901 | Strays

Bank Road & the Steep-Gradient Tramway

NIGHTINGALE, Florence (12 May 1820-13 Aug 1910) "The Lady with the Lamp"

Miss Florence Nightingale
reproduced here courtesy of 
The Florence Nightingale Museum, London
Click this image for a larger photograph Florence Nightingale is probably the most well known of the past inhabitants of the area, apart from Sir Richard Arkwright. Her great determination and total dedication to her profession completely changed the quality of nursing care in Britain and the British Army. She is regarded as one of Britain's greatest heroines and her life has been well documented.

The younger of two sisters, daughters of William Edward Shore Nightingale and his wife Fanny, Florence was named after the city where she was born.

Florence's father descended from his great grandfather Peter Nightingale, a Derbyshire lead merchant and yeoman (see below) through the female line. When his great uncle, also called Peter Nightingale, died unmarried and without a male heir in 1803 he changed his surname to that of Nightingale.

"The Nightingale family has long resided at Lea Hurst; previously they were at Wood End and Lea Hall"[1]. The family lived at Lea Hall, on the edge of the parish, until Florence was about five years old. They then moved to Lea Hurst. The family later only used the house during the summer - too cold otherwise, too small and too remote for Mrs. Nightingale, though Florence loved it.

Florence was well educated as a girl and began hospital visiting in 1844. She trained as a nurse at Kaiserwerth on the Rhine and was appointed a nursing superintendent at the Hospital for Invalid Gentlewomen in London in 1853. The hospital was later renamed and became the Florence Nightingale Hospital for Gentlewomen.

At the outbreak of the Crimean war (1854-6), having learned of the terrible conditions at the hospital at Scutari, Florence gathered together a band of ladies and went to help. They found that even the most basic sanitation was nonexistent and the food storage was disgraceful. The women, with Florence leading them, transformed the hospital by sheer hard work and perseverance but it took a long time to do and some of them also succumbed to disease (cholera, dysentery and typhus) as well as frostbite. Florence herself, assisted by orderlies, tended the wounded at night, which is how she was given the affectionate title of "The Lady with the Lamp". In Derby, near the Royal Infirmary, there is a white marble statue of her dressed as she would have been in the Crimea and carrying a lighted torch.

She returned to Derbyshire in August 1856. "One summer's day in 1856 a lady left a convent on the banks of the Thames, took a train to the nearest station to Holloway, and walked from the station to her home. She was unattended and hardly expected when she opened the door of Lea Hurst to reveal herself to the astonished household. She was Florence Nightingale home again. ... She was the most talked of woman in Europe[n1]".

At the end of the Crimean War Matlock Bath and Cromford residents celebrated with a parade "down Water Lane, returning by Scarthen-row, and by Scarthen Tors, through Matlock Bath to the Railway Bridge and passed by the Old Bath Royal Hotel". Amongst all the banners was an effigy of Florence Nightingale to express local admiration "for that excellent lady"[n2]. Goodness knows what Florence made of it. There were similar celebrations in Matlock Town. "From the great number of children and women of the neighbourhood of Matlock, tea, plum-cake, buns and bread and butter could only be thought of, which was most abundantly provided"[n2].

A fund was set up and, as a result of the money raised, the Nightingale School for Nurses at St. Thomas' Hospital, London was established. As a result of her Crimea work, and her later interest in the British Army in India, living conditions for those in the Army improved enormously. She received several awards for her work and was the first woman to receive the Order of Merit. On 16 March, 1908 she received the honorary freedom of the City of London, something almost unheard of for a woman to have been awarded at that time[n3].

There have been a number of books written about Florence Nightingale and some question the success of her work in the Crimea. Two biographies with good illustrations are:
- Huxley, Elspeth (1975) "Florence Nightingale" Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London ISBN 0 296 76771 2
- Small, Hugh (1998) "Florence Nightingale Avenging Angel" Constable and Company Limited, London ISBN 0-90-479840-0

Pedigree of Nightingale | Coat of Arms | Dethick, Lea and Holloway (Kelly's 1891 Directory)
Florence Nightingale as a young woman | Florence Nightingale's Balcony, Lea-Hurst, Nr. Matlock

NIGHTINGALE, Peter (d. 2 Feb 1763)

A lead merchant and yeoman and the 2 x great grandfather of Miss Florence Nightingale. He married three times; his third wife was Elizabeth Dodd, a widow, whom he married on 9 Aug 1757 at South Wingfield.

He was buried at Ashover on 5 Feb 1763. His first wife Anne (nee Cheetham) had been interred there on 18 Apr 1742. Three of their children are also buried there: Eliner (bu 1741), Thomas (bu 1755) and Peter (see below), none of whom married. Peter's daughter Anne was the only child to marry and have legitimate heirs.

References to Peter Nightingale, and assumed to be Peter Nightingale the elder because of the date, in the Woolley manuscripts: 6668 | 6681 | 6683
Pedigree of Nightingale | Coat of Arms |

NIGHTINGALE, Peter (1736-1803)

The younger Peter Nightingale, son of Peter and his first wife Anne, was the great great uncle of Miss Florence Nightingale. He became High-Sheriff of Derbyshire in 1770.

"The Nightingales and their successors have been landed proprietors in the parish since 1771" when Peter Nightingale bought an estate called "the Coumbs and Bough or Bow Woods" ... and the manor of Wakebridge, Crich[1].

He built a mill at Lea about 1783 which was taken over by the Smedley family in 1807 and Nightingale's mill is still producing knitwear. It was when Peter Nightingale was recruiting workers for the mill that he first fell out with Richard Arkwright and was accused of "seducing and employing a Manufacturer" from Cromford and at Matlock Bath was ordered to pay twenty guineas in damages and costs[n4]. He seems to have poached a man called Benjamin Pearson, who was trusted by Arkwright, but their partnership was dissolved in 1785[n5].

In 1785 he was the defendant in a case at the Court of Common Pleas, London regarding a carding patent; the plaintiff was Sir Richard Arkwright, who won the case. Peter Nightingale was "one of the proprietors of Cromford Sough" and "this eccentric sporting squire, known throughout the county as 'Mad Peter Nightingale' had gained notoriety as a dare-devil horseman, a rider in midnight steeplechases and a layer of wagers, given to hard drinking and low company"[n4].

He died at Wood-End on 25 June 1803 and was buried at Ashover on 29 June alongside his parents and other family members. He was unmarried, although he had at least one illegitimate child - Mary Browne who married James Sweetenham.

References to Peter Nightingale in the Woolley manuscripts:
6667 f.139 | 6670 f.232 (2 folios) - 233 | 6673 ff.62-3 | 6679 ff.1-4 | 6684 ff.109d-112 | 6707 f.59d
Pedigree of Nightingale | Coat of Arms | Wills |

Matlock Old Church,1870

NUTTALL, George (1802-1856)

Like his father and grandfather before him, George Nuttall was a Land Agent. He was the only child of George and Mary Nuttall, his mother being a daughter of Dr. Stephen Melland of Youlgreave. George was a wealthy man and owned, amongst other things, the Cawdor Quarry (the Megdale estate). He had lived with his mother for many years though census returns in his lifetime show him living on Matlock Green whilst his mother lived at The Firs, now Matlock library.

Towards the end of his life he was clearly not a well man as he had what was referred to as both a chronic abscess and a tumour at the base of his spine at the time he drew up the first Will in September 1854. He was seen by first Dr. Adams and then Dr. Chinery not long before he died in 1856[n6].

Settlement of his estate took some years because of the discovery of additional codicils to his Will and it was not resolved until 1864. What became known as "The Great Matlock Will Case" was heard at the Court of the Queens Bench, Guildhall, London; the case was to decide whether or not three codicils that had been found were or were not forgeries.

The press of the time had a field day and some of the speculation and character assassination that was rife then has stuck. Whatever one's opinion of the case itself might be, there is no evidence that George Nuttall and his housekeeper, Catherine Marsden, had any children and the Marsdens named in George's Will were clearly defined as his housekeeper's siblings[n7]. After all, why would someone go to great lengths to identify the illegitimate son of his own father in his Will yet not acknowledge any children he himself might have had? It was an additional complication that the main beneficiary of the actual Will, George's second cousin John Nuttall, had died in France shortly after George.

A report of the first court case in "The Derby Mercury" in 1859 said George had settled in Matlock some 28 years before, as his grandfather lived there. "He had houses and land in Bonsall, Matlock, Snitterton and other places. Towards the end of his life he ceased working as a surveyor, instead being occupied with parish affairs as Surveyor of the highways". As far as his character was concerned, Mr. Macauley, the Q.C., described him as benevolent[n6]. He had helped John Else when the latter was a boy, teaching him accounts, and generally advancing the young man's career; Else married Eliza Marsden.

Although not a lawyer himself, George would help people he knew with their Wills, and his "personal and intimate"[n6] friend Mr. Newbold, who had known him since 1820 and managed his business affairs for many years, would supply him with skeleton Wills. At the first court case hearing Newbold described George as "strong minded and intelligent"[n6].

George was buried at Youlgreave, alongside other members of his family.

1841 census | 1851 census | NUTTALL pedigree - George was the main contributor.

Read:
The Great Matlock Will Case - Court Report
The Great Matlock Will Case - 100th anniversary newspaper article.
This case was not solved immediately. See the onsite extracts from the London Gazette in 1872 and 1893

NUTTALL, John (1745-1833)

He was a Land Agent in Matlock and Commissioner of Inclosures. He was appointed in 1780 by Peter Nightingale, John Woolley and others to be the arbitrator for the enclosure of land, John Nuttall "acted repeatedly for settling claims under the Inclosure Acts and .. [was said] to have given general satisfaction[1]". In this role he placed advertisements in local newspapers announcing when and where the hearing would take place to ascertain the boundaries of a particular town or village. Petitions from claimants would be heard and the land would be valued. He also acted as a referee in cases where land sales might be disputed. One such case was the sale of the Marquess of Ormonde's estates in 1824, reported in "The Morning Chronicle".

John was one of the sons of Thomas Nuttall of Birchover, the illegitimate son of Thomas Eyre of Rowtor. He married Elizabeth Rouse and although the couple had six children, only one son, George, survived childhood. George was to follow in his father's footsteps, as did his grandson, also George (see George above). John Nuttall died at Matlock on 22 May 1833 and was interred at Youlgreave.

NUTTALL pedigree

Surnames P
PETERS, Charles Augustus (26 November 1838-18 January 1904)

A son of David Peters of Elberfeld, Germany, he arrived in England in 1861 and was initially employed at Bradford. He then joined his brother and sister in law as elastic web manufacturers, silk throwsters and general merchants at an extensive works on City Road, Derby and became the head of the firm Messrs. Peters, Bartsch & Co., Manufacturers and Merchants[p1]. The company was later described as "foreign exporters", of Tenant-street. Derby. Following his brother-in-law's death the partnership dissolved in 1902 and became Messrs. C. A. Peters, Ltd.[p2]

Charles Peters was an able linguist and took steps to become naturalised. He and his wife Rachel (nee Spence) moved from Borrowash to Guilderoy in Matlock Bath in 1880 and involved themselves in local affairs[p3]. He became a member and then Chairman of the Local Board, was a generous subscriber to local charities, and was a Life Governor the Derby and Derbyshire Royal Infirmary, a member of the Board Management of the Derby and Derbyshire Convalescent Home at Matlock Bank, and patron of many other philanthropic societies. He was responsible for the Pavilion and Gardens Scheme in Matlock Bath, the acquisition of the Jubilee Promenade and the rescue of Artists' Corner[p1].

The Peters were well thought of in the village and in 1888 they were presented with a solid silver table centrepiece, specially manufactured by Elkington and Co. of Birmingham, "on the occasion of their silver wedding as a token of esteem, and in recognition of their efforts for the welfare of Matlock Bath – June 5th, 1888"[p4]. The couple left Matlock Bath at the end of 1893; a Complimentary Banquet was held in Mr. Peters' honour at the New Bath Hotel, with Mr. Arkwright J.P. presiding, where he was praised and thanked for all he had done[p5]. Rachel and Charles Peters returned to the Derby area, moving first to Ason on Trent, and he died at Nunsfield, Boulton in 1904[p6]. His ashes were interred at Duffield. Sadly for him, about a year before his death he became ill and it was thought he would lose his eyesight, so he spent a quite a lot of time in a darkened room[p1]. His wife survived him, and died in 1910.

Mr. Peters was at Guilderoy in the 1881 census | the 1891 census. He was also listed in Kelly's 1891 Directory and was on the Local Board in the same year.
One of his company's products was used at St. Giles'.
Rebuilding Derby General Infirmary - Fundraising in May, 1891.

Surnames R
RAWLINSON, James

Mr. Rawlinson was born in 1769 and lived in Derby before moving to Matlock Bath. He was an English portrait painter but only once exhibited at the Royal Academy, London; this was in 1799 when he exhibited a painting of an old woman knitting. His portrait of Erasmus Darwin "has been well engraved by Heath"[r1]. He also painted landscapes. "In 1822 he published an album of Derbyshire views. He produced lithographs after drawings by his daughter, Eliza, with whom he visited Italy in 1829. His work is atmospheric but technically unaccomplished[r2].

An obituary notice published in "The Liverpool Mercury" on 8 August, 1848 said he died on "July 25, at Belmont-cottage, Matlock Bath, James Rawlinson, Esq., artist, aged 79 years. He was a pupil of the late celebrated George Romney, and one of the few remaining artists who were contemporary with Sir Joshua Reynolds". In 1849 his daughter Eliza commissioned a memorial from the sculptor J. Loft which was erected in All Saints' Church, Derby.

Mentioned in Adam's "Gem of the Peak"
1841 Census for Matlock Bath | MI of wife
Trade Directory entries: Brewer 1823/4 | Glover 1827/8/9 | Pigot 1828-9 | Pigot 1831 | Pigot 1842 | Bagshaw 1846
See Pre-1858 Wills info, Surnames R

RAYNER, Louise J* (1832-8 Oct 1924)

Louise or Louisa was one of the six daughters of the Victorian watercolour painter Samuel Rayner and his wife Anne (nee Manser) and was born in Matlock Bath on 21 Jun 1832. She was baptized in London at the Newman Street Catholic Apostolic in Saint Marylebone on 8 Feb 1835, together with her slightly younger sister Frances. The girls and their brother Richard Manser Rayner would have been surrounded by the artist friends and acquaintances of their parents, and it isn't too surprising that they all were pupils of their father and all but one became artists in their own right. The eldest, Nancy, was elected as an associate of the Water Colour Society but died of consumption in 1855.

By 1881 Louise had been living in the City of Chester for eleven or twelve years; she was boarding with Robert Shearing, a retired chemist, and his wife Mary Ann at 2 Ash Grove and described as a Water Colour Artist (Painter). Her sister Margaret was also earning her living as a watercolour artist, but was living in New Windsor with her mother and Frances, by now Mrs. Coppinger, was lodging nearby and describing herself as an Artist Painter. Brother Richard was in Gomshall, Surrey, though later moved to Orpington in Kent. Another sister, Rose (Rhoda), exhibited last in 1866[r3].

After their mother Anne died in 1890 Margaret went to live with Louise and the sisters taught watercolour drawing in Chester. They later moved to Tunbridge Wells and Louise spent the last four years of her life at St Leonard's in Sussex.

Chester featured in quite a few of her paintings though Louise travelled around Britain, and the subjects she chose were the old buildings and churches she visited, and the landscapes and street scenes she saw. She also visited France. A few early works, such as "The Interior of Haddon Chapel" were executed in oil but the majority were watercolours. She exhibited in both London, where she'd begun exhibiting in 1852[r2], and in galleries in several British cities. Fisher[r4] says she exhibited 91 works, including 31 at the Royal Academy. Waters[r5] describes her output as considerable though she "duplicated many of her works".

The Bridgeman Art Library has examples of the work of both Louisa and her father, including a watercolour of Irongate, Derby. Sothebys list a record price paid for one of her paintings at a sale in recent years.

See Strays | South Parade, from a sketch by Samuel Rayner, 1830 lithograph
Bridgeman Art Library (an external link, use their "Search")

There are two other main that are are very informative on this little recognized artist and a "must" to visit :
DudleyMall has been considerably enlarged to include a great deal of information about the Rayner family, including a lovely engraving of Matlock Bath on black marble done by Louise's mother, Anne.
Louise Rayner, Artist

*Originally named Louisa Ingram Rayner

Surnames S
SHELMERDINE, Thomas

Shelmerdine was the Presbyterian Minister who held the living at Matlock 1654-62 in the aftermath of the English Civil War. A Lancastrian by birth, he was educated at Christ College, Cambridge. Before coming to Matlock he had previously been a minister at Crich. The Parliamentary Commissioners Report of 1650 describes "Mr. Thomas Shelmardine, able and honest"[s1]. "He was a Man very Cheerful in converse. A kind Husband to an Holy but very Melancholy Wife. ... He remov'd thence [i.e. from Matlock] when he was Silenc'd to a dwelling at Wirksworth, when he did not long survive"[s2].
(Ann Andrews)

Rectors | Strays

SMEDLEY, John (1803-1874)

His influence on the town of Matlock, with the building of his hydro and then his castle at Riber as well as six churches in the area, was enormous. There is a great deal of information already on this site, so there is no short biography about him on this page.
Caroline Smedley

Selection of pages that mention John Smedley:
Lea Mills, Derbyshire
Riber
Water Cures Includes an engraving of Mr. Smedley's tent, where his employees worshipped
Advert for Hydro, 1869
1871 census
"There Was Red Tape at Smedley's Hydro Then"
The Enduring Folly of Riber Castle
Smedley shows concern about an employee (newspaper report of 1872)
Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Images Includes five pages of mid 19th century images from John Smedley's "Practical Hydropathy"
Twentieth and Twenty First Century, Matlock Includes postcards and an advertisement published in "The Derbyshire Countryside"
Further reading

Matlock: Water Cures, Mr. Smedley's Baths, Boxes & Douches
John Smedley designed a range of steam boxes, baths and douches, as well as some other gadgets, for use at both the hydropathic establishment and the free hospital
SMITH, Job (1841-1907)

Job, a son of George and Rachel Smith of Matlock Bank (see baptism), was the proprietor of Malvern House Hydro*, where he was born and died. Although in residence in Malvern House he did not buy the property until 1886 when it was auctioned at the Crown Hotel. He applied for a full license to his premises at the Brewster Sessions in the summer of 1887 but his application was opposed by both Smedley's and local publicans and was refused[s3].

He was very involved in public life but is probably remembered most for his contribution to "the steepest tramway in the world", having worked diligently to bring a tramway to the town.

He had been employed by Smedley's before 1862, but then roamed the world for six years "from China to Peru". It was on these travels that he saw the San Francisco system and realised the potential for Matlock Bank. He mentioned the idea to John Smedley when he got home, but Smedley wasn't interested. Job didn't forget the idea, resurrecting it again in late 1884 and the idea eventually took off when Sir George Newnes was prepared to provide financial backing.

Job was the Managing Director of Matlock Cable Tramway Company, a Director of the Gas Works, Chairman of Matlock Waterworks, Chairman of the Social Institute and of the High Tor Recreation Grounds. He served on the Local Board and was the Chairman for eleven years. The town was not ungrateful and in February 1893 a complimentary banquet was given in the Assembly Room in recognition of his services as Local Board Chairman over the previous 10 years. Mr. Arkwright presented him with an illuminated address, a gold watch and a 130oz. solid silver tea urn[s4].

He subsequently served on Matlock Urban District Council and its various committees for many years and became chairman (Kelly's 1904 Directory), overseeing important changes to the town including the widening of the County Bridge and the purchase of the Hall Leys. He also represented Matlock on the County Council.

He was one of the committee formed to build the new church on Matlock Bank (All Saints') and by August 1882 they had raised over £2,000. Job was the first church warden at All Saints', serving the church for 22 years. Four coloured windows were installed in his memory, with money raised by public subscription. He was also the Manager of All Saints' Schools.

His commitment to public life was immense. He became a director of several non-Matlock companies,including the Hathersage Gas Company, was a member of the Bakewell Board of Guardians, a member of the Whitworth Hospital Board, a member of the Almshouses at Matlock Bank, a trustee of the Educational Boards and on the political side was a member of Matlock Conservative Clubs5].

Job never married. He can be picked out in many old photographs of Matlock as he invariably wore a stetson hat.

Just born in 1841 | 1851 census | 1861 census | 1871 census | 1891 census | 1901 census
Matlock Names in 19th C Lists (see County Council)

Bank Road & the Steep-Gradient Tramway

*Malvern House (ref in Kelly 1900) on Smedley Street was formerly the Horse and Jockey pub, which Job ran as a hydro, was eventually purchased by Smedley's as staff accommodation and is now flats[s6].

Surnames U
UTTLEY, Alison (17 December 1884 -1976)

Memories of her childhood, spent at Castle Top Farm, were the inspiration for the animal tales invented by Alison Uttley to amuse her son. Her delightful children's books, illustrated by Margaret Tempest, became familiar and well loved tales in very many households. The animal characters were in such wonderful children's stories as "The Little Grey Rabbit", "Sam Pig" and "Fuzzypeg".

Alice Jane Taylor was born at Castle Top Farm "on a Saturday ... a week before Christmas", the daughter of Henry Taylor and his second wife Hannah (nee Dickens). Many generations of the Taylor family had lived at Castle Top Farm, which is within the parish of Matlock, and their baptisms and burials are in the church records.

Alice was a clever girl; she was educated at home and then at the village school across the fields at Lea. She found that she had to write on a slate with a pencil at school, instead of using paper and her quill pen. At the age of thirteen she won a scholarship to Lady Manner's Grammar School, Bakewell. She would catch the milk train from Cromford Station, just down the road from the farm. After Lady Manners she went on to Manchester University where she gained an Honours Degree in Physics. This was followed by a further year studying in Cambridge where she qualified to become a teacher. She later became active in the Suffragette Movement.

She'd met her scientist husband, James Uttley, whilst at Manchester and they married in 1911; they had one son. Her writing talents weren't properly developed until after her husband's death in 1930 when she needed an income to support both herself and her son. She'd begun to write before this, but James didn't really encourage her. However, "The Country Child" was published in 1931 and she published over 100 books in total. Although she never went back to live at Castle Top, she describes Cromford, the village and country life of Derbyshire that she'd observed, as well as her schooling, in her books. "A Traveller in Time" is based on the Babington Plot to free Mary Queen of Scots; Anthony Babington had owned property in the nearby Dethick and Wingfield Manor, where Mary Queen of Scots had been imprisoned, wasn't too far away. "High Meadows" is set at the nearby High Leas Farm. Alison believed in the supernatural and in her book "When All is Done" there are ghosts are part of the plot. Her books for adults provide a very useful insight into nineteenth and century farm life and she had a very strong awareness of history, with all kinds of snippets interwoven into her stories. She spent her later life living in rural Buckinghamshire.

Church registers | Census returns and Trade directory transcripts
Also see the 1901 census transcript on this web site - Alice Taylor 16

Surnames W
WALKER, George Wigley (1803-1873)

On 6 Oct 1851 a Public Meeting of Miners, Persons interested in Mines and Landowners was held in the Moot Hall, Wirksworth; amongst those present was Mr Geo. Walker (Matlock). The meeting's agenda was discussion of the Mineral Laws and Customs in preparation for forthcoming Parliamentary legislation. A committee was appointed for the purpose of introducing the Bill to Amend the Mining Laws and George Walker's name was included amongst the committee members[w1].

George was a lead miner and later acted as an agent for the Moletrap or Bullistree (Bullistre / Bullistrey) Lead Mine[w2]. Documents held by Stuart Flint show he was a co-owner and partner of the Bullestree and Moletrap Lead Mines in the 1840s, together with his brothers William and Joseph (Stuart's great grandfather) although Joseph was a silent partner. The mines were on the same raike as the Wapping Mine. The Moletrap Mine was on the opposite bank of the River Derwent to Masson Mill, behind Willersley Castle, whereas the Bullistree Mine is where Cromford Railway Station was built; the mounds of the mine are still visible off Willersley Lane. Seams from Moletrap mine ran into Bullistree[w3].

In 1847 the sale of two twenty-fourth shares in the Bullistre and Moletrap Lead Mines was advertised; the mines were "situate in the Liberty of Matlock, near Cromford Bridge in the Wapentake of Wirksworth". The lot was described as an "improving property" and one of solicitors was a Mr. Mawe. There was a further sale in 1853, this time of one twenty-fourth share in the Bullistrey and Moletrap Mine, near Cromford Bridge. The share was to be sold with a proportionate share of the steam engine, mining plant and other material. "... the mine has recently realised upwards of One Hundred Loads of Ore at a reckoning". In 1868 applications for sale particulars of the Mole Trap Mine and Plant were directed to George Walker of Belle Vue Cottage[w4].

The three brothers, George Wigley, William and Joseph, were sons of William and Catherine Walker (nee Wigley) of Bolehill. George, their eldest son, was born at Bonsall on 25 March 1803 and baptised at St. James' Church on 24 July 1803. A sister, Sarah, married William Smith; Smith was employed by Mr. Gilbert as a gardener at the Heights of Abraham and the Botanical Gardens in the 1830s when a lead miner attempted to dig up the Gardens (see Lead Mining).

George married Lydia Maskrey at Wirksworth on 16 Sep 1828. Lydia, the daughter of Joseph and Mary Maskrey, had been baptised at Wirksworth on New Year's Day 1808. The couple lived at several addresses in Matlock Bath, including Alpine Cottage and Belle Vue Cottage. They did not have any children. George Wigley Walker was buried on 1 Aug 1873 at Matlock Bath Holy Trinity where he had been a sidesman[w3], aged 70; Lydia outlived her husband and was buried on 30 Jun 1890, also at Holy Trinity.

1841 Census | 1851 Census | 1861 Census | 1871 Census | 1881 Census
MI | Wills

 
Selection of biographies elsewhere on this web site


ALLEN,
Dimple Farm

ALLEN,
Riber Hall

BALLARD, Jemima

BARTON,
George

BIRD, Walter
 

BOWN, Phœbe

BRIDGE

BRINSLEY, Betty

BRUNT &
SLATER

COOK, Harold J
 
  
HODGKINSON, L & M

KEWLEY, Canon

LAWTON,
John E
  
POTTER, JA & family

ROWBOTTOM,
Percy

ROWLAND,
Charles

WHITTAKER, Mary

Young servants

WILDGOOSE, Robert
& Marian E
 

Still not here? Use Find a Name to locate them
There are biographical notes about the Rectors of Matlock Parish Church (see footnotes)
There are also biographical notes about the Pastors of the Congregational Church, where known)

List of Contributors


Unless specifically stated, research by and biographies written by Ann Andrews.

With very grateful thanks to those named below, without whom some of the information would not be available. All material is the copyright of the individual contributor and their permission should be sought before further publication.

Bates, David - for all his help and enthusiasm re the Cumming family. He has found material about the family on the Isle of Man, at North Runcton, in Rome and in the United States.
Bunting, Julie
Donegani, Douglas - for all his help with the surname Donegani, both in the U.K. and in Canada.
Fitton, John - for some information about John Bowne of Long Island
Ludlam, Bill - information about William Ludlam
Ludlam, Stuart D.
Mawson, Valerie for her input on Alison Uttley
Palmer, John for providing the Doxey information
Retz, Dieter - provided all the information about Ann Mumford (nee Bryan) and some about her family. See the book, "My Moreland Family", by Pamela Marion Retz. There's an onsite link to his BOWN and BRYAN information.

If you wish to get in touch with anyone please go to
Contributors & Acknowledgements


References:

General:
[1] Bryan, Benjamin (1903) "History of Matlock - Matlock, Manor and Parish" London by Bemrose & Sons, Limited

Surname specific:
BOWN
[b1] Baillie, G. H. (1947) "Watchmakers & Clockmakers of the World, Vol. I" pub. N.A.G. Press Ltd., London. ISBN 7198 0040 4.
[b2] Loomes. B. (1976) "Watchmakers & Clockmakers of the World, Vol. II" pub. N.A.G. Press Ltd., London. ISBN 7198 0080 3.

BRYAN
[b3] "The Derby Mercury", Wednesday, 25 July, 1860.

CUBLEY
[c1] The Cubley family were living in Kirkgate, Newark in the 1861 census. In 1871 Cubley's father's occupation was given as House Painter and Picture Dealer. 1881 census: Cubley was given as married, although no marriage has been found in research to date. It is possible that the enumerator made a mistake as the Condition for his sister in the entry immediately below his was altered and it is possible the Enumerator initially entered the brother and sister as man and wife.
[c2] BMD information for the Cubley's is from GRO indexes - Marriages (Q3 1886, CUBLEY Henry Hadfield Wolverhampton 6b 652). The marriage was also announced in "The Derby Mercury", 22 September, 1886. Baptisms extracted from church records. Various years for his death are given on the Internet, including 1925, 1930 and 1934. His death is recorded in GRO indexes - Q2 1834 CUBLEY Henry H 75 Congleton 8a 371. No Will has been found.GRO death indexes show Gladys was born at Matlock Bath on 30 June 1887.
[c3] These figures have been researched for the web mistress by Ken Smith who checked postcards of Cubley's paintings in his private collection.
[c4] "Kelly's Directory of Staffordshire, 1912" gives his address as Hillcrest, Longsdon and the Misses Cubley were possibly at Derby Road, Burton on Trent.

CUMMING
[c5] Old Bath to let, "The Derby Mercury", Thursday, 11 September, 1806; JN Cumming's announcement of occupancy "The Derby Mercury", 12 February, 1807; death of JNC "Liverpool Mercury" Friday, 28 April, 1820; death of Mrs. Mary Cumming "The Derby Mercury", Wednesday, 26 January, 1842.
[c6] From David Bates.
[c7] Cumming/Comyn family papers from David Bates.
[c8] Records of Sun Fire Office [MS 11936/538/1148689] 18 January 1833.
[c9] "The Derby Mercury", Wednesday, 18 October, 1837.
[c10] Notice of M.A.: "The Standard", Saturday, 16 December, 1837. General ordination held at Peterborough, when admitted to Holy Orders, from "The Blackburn Standard", Wednesday, 6 May, 1835.
[c11] "The Derby Mercury", Wednesday, July 7, 1841.
[c12] "The Times", Tuesday, 6 Oct, 1863. Middlesex Sessions, Oct. 5.
[c13] "The Derby Mercury", Wednesday, 7 November, 1866.
[c14] "The Bury and Norwich Post: Or Suffolk, Essex, Cambridge, Ely, and Norfolk Telegraph", Wednesday, 17 March, 1819
[c15] Transcript corrected Jun 2010 with the help of The Revd John Drackley (author of the Church Guide 2006) to whom I am also very grateful.

DONEGANI
[d1] Extracts from the obituary notice for Joseph Francis Donegani, "The High Peak News", 28 April, 1933, provided by Douglas Donegani.

LOWE
[l1] References to Adam Lowe extracted from census returns and various newspapers not already mentioned in the text, including "The York Herald", "The Leeds Mercury" and "The Bury and Norwich Post, and Suffolk Herald"
[l2] Mitchell, Ian (2000) "A History of All Saints' Church Matlock Bank (1876-2000)", pub. All Saints' PCC

LUDLAM
[l3] Taken from: "A Genealogy of the Descendants of William Ludlam of Southampton, Long Island". Julia Parish Ludlam. (1896). American Bank Note Company, 45 pp. plus index. [Punctuation and capitals as in the original]. (supplied by Stuart D. Ludlam).
[l4]
Taken from: "William Ludlam of Southampton", Dr. Walter D. Ludlam, Sr., St. Albans, N.Y.

NIGHTINGALE
[n1] Mee, Arthur (ed.) (1937) "Derbyshire: The Peak Country", The King's England Series, Hodder and Stoughton Limited, London, p.157
[n2]
"The Derby Mercury", Wednesday, 4 June, 1856
[n3] "The Times", 17 Mar 1908. Only one other woman had received the honorary freedom before Florence was honoured.
[n4] Fitton, R. S. (1989) "The Arkwrights, Spinners of Fortune", Manchester University Press ISBN 0/7190/2646/6. The description of Peter Nightingale had come from: Cecil Woodham-Smith (1950), Florence Nightingale, 1820-1910, London
[n5] "London Gazette", March 28, 1785. The Partnership between Peter Nightingale, Esq and Mr. Benjamin Pearson was ... dissolved by mutual Consent.

NUTTALL
[n6] "The Derby Mercury", Wednesday, 3 Aug 1859
[n7] Will of George Nuttall, with one codicil, proved London 8 May 1856. Second Codicil passed Feb 1857.

PETERS
[p1]
Obituary notices in the "Derby Daily Telegraph", 19 January 1904 and the "Derbyshire Times and Chesterfield Herald", 23 January 1904
[p2] "Derby Daily Telegraph", 30 April 1902, quoting notice in the "London Gazette".
[p3] Newspaper reports throughout the 1880s.
[p4] "Derby Mercury", 06 June 1888.
[p5] "Derby Daily Telegraph", 8 December 1893.
[p6] Calendar of Wills, First Avenue House, London (now gov.uk).

RAWLINSON
[r1] Extracted at the FRC from Bryan's "Painters & Engravers. A Bibliographical Dictionary of Painters & Engravers" (1925) G. Bell & Sons, Ltd., London Vol. IV
[r2] Mallalieu H. L. (1976) "Dictionary of British Water Colour Artists up to 1920" Baron Publishing, Woodbridge ISBN 0 902028 48 0

RAYNER
[r3] Wood, Christopher (2nd. ed. 1977) "Dictionary of Victorian Painters" Antique Collectors Club ISBN 0 902028 72 3
[r4] Fisher, Stanley (1977) "A Dictionary of Water Colour Painters 1750-1900" W. Foulsham & Co., Yeovil, ISBN 0-572-00794-9
[r5] Waters, Grant M (1972) "Dictionary of British Artists Working 1900-1950" Eastbourne Fine Art

SHELMERDINE
[s1] Cox, J. Charles (1877) Vol. II. "Notes on the Churches of Derbyshire" pub. Chesterfield London and Derby.
[s2] Calamy's Ejected Ministers , vol.ii., p.166.

SMITH
[s3] "Derby Daily Telegraph", 31 August 1887. Report on the outcome of the Brewster sessions.
[s4] "The Derby Mercury", 8 February, 1893.
[s5] "Derby Daily Telegraph", 15 May 1907. Job Smith.
[s6] From notes by Julie Bunting. Also see Taverns and Public Houses in Pigot's Directory 1831 | Pigot's Directory 1842 | the 1841 census.

WALKER
[w1] "The Derby Mercury" Wednesday, 15 October, 1851.
[w2] Kelly's Directory 1864 (Matlock Bath).
[w3] With thanks to Stuart Flint.
[w4] Sale of 2 shares "The Derby Mercury" 11 August, 1847, advertised over a period of three weeks; sale of one share "The Derby Mercury", 26 October, 1853; Sale of Mole Trap Mine and Plant "The Derby Mercury", 10 June, 1868.