Derbyshire's Parishes, 1811> This page
Derbyshire's Parishes, 1811
The parishes and chapelries as they were just over 200 years ago. Extracts from an early Derbyshire history

Parishes T - Z
From : 'History of Derbyshire' by David Peter Davies

Parishes T

"Tadintune, is another chapelry under Bakewell. The church is dedicated to St. Michael; and the number of houses in the hamlet is about seventy. These villages of the High Peak are but little cultivated, and, therefore, the inhabitants depend chiefly upon the lead mines for their support."
In the Archdeaconry of Derby.

Hamlet in the parish of Crich in the Deanery of Derby. See Crich.
Tansley - Kelly's 1891 Directory

Part of the parish of Chesterfield. See Chesterfield.

Part of the parish of Chesterfield. See Chesterfield.

"in Domesday called Torp, ia a very agreeable little village with a small church, seated upon the brow of a hill, and so surrounded with trees as to be highly picturesque. The living is a rectory, and the church is dedicated to St. Leonard; the Dean of Lincoln is the patron.
A little to the North of the village, is Thorp Cloud, a conical hill, of very steep ascent, which rises to a great height. Near this is a tolerably good descent, into a deep hollow called Bunster-Dale; one side of which is bounded by a steep acclivity, finely covered with wood ; and the other by a range of lofty crags, of wild, uncouth appearance. Passing through this narrow ravine (where the eye is prevented from excursion, and the mind thrown back on itself) for half a mile, a sudden turn, presents the eye, with the southern entrance of the far-famed and romantic Dove-Dale, a name it received from the river Dove, pouring its water through the valley. [There are then several pages of description, which is included in the section about Dovedale]
At Wooton-Hall, near Dove-Dale, Hume procured a place of retreat, for that singular character and ingenious writer Jean Jacques Rousseau. Flying from a persecution which his exuberant imagination pictured, as thickening around him on the continent, he arrived in London in January, 1766 ... about the latter end of March he settled in Derbyshire. ... From this abode, however, he issued in January 1767, with his usual eccentricity, inflamed by an imaginary affront ... and returned to the continent."
In the Deanery of Ashbourne.

Thorpe and Thorpe Cloud

"is by the Norman surveyors written Tibecel. In the ninth of Edward the Second[1] there was a church at this place, the advowson of which was appropriated to the priory of Brewood. The present living is a vicarage, and the church is dedicated to St. John the Baptist. The number of inhabitants in Tibshelf is about six hundred and eighty, who are principally employed in the colliery, and in the manufacture of stockings.
There is a chalybeate spring at Tibshelf; but the impregnation is not very great. About a century and a half ago, it was in great repute and drank throughout the summer season : now, however, it is not much frequented."
In the Deanery of Chesterfield.

"in Domesday Tichenhalle, is an extensive parish, and a large village, consisting of near two hundred houses. The living is a donative curacy, of the clear value of £26. The church is dedicated to St. Thomas Becket; and in former times was part of the endowment of the priory at Repton. Sir Henry Crewe is the patron. The lime kilns find employment for many during the summer season; while the pursuits of agriculture employ several more."
In the Deanery of Repington.

"is a small market town, situated in a bottom, which is surrounded on all sides by barren and desolate moors. It is supposed to have received its name from an ebbing and flowing well, situated in a field near the town, but which has now ceased to flow for more than a century. The manor anciently belonged to William Peveril,and being afterwards vested in king John, was given by him to his esquire, whose female descendant, in Richard the Second's time[2], being married to a Stafford, obtained a grant of a weekly market, and a yearly fair to be held here. The estate afterwards came to the Merrills or Meverills, of Throwley, in Staffordshire ; and was conveyed, by the marriage of an heiress, to Lord Cromwell, of Oakham, in Rutlandshire, one of whose descendants sold it, between the death of Charles the First and the period of the Restoration, to the Eyres of Highlow. Since the death of John Archer, Esq. of Welford, in Berkshire, the male heir of this family, this manor has been sold, under the authority of the Court in Chancery, to the Duke of Devonshire.
At the compilation of Domesday, there were a church and a priest in Tidessuuelle ; and king John in the year 1215, gave the chapel at Tideswell, as well as the church at Hope, to the canons of Litchfield, for their common provision of bread and beer. The present church was erected in the fourteenth century, as appears from an inscription on a flat stone in the chancel, to the memory of John, son of Thomas Foljambe, who died in 1358 ; and is said to have contributed much towards the building of the edifice. The church is a handsome building of the conventional form, with a neat tower to the west end, terminated by eight pinnacles ; those at the angles rising from octagonal bases, and being much higher than the intermediate ones. The living is a vicarage, the church is dedicated to St. John the Baptist, and the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield are the patrons.
In the church is a raised tomb to the memory of Sampson Meurill, who was born in 1388, and died in 1462. It appears from the inscription, that, in the spate of two years, he was in eleven battles in France, where he served under the command of the great Duke of Bedford, who knighted him at St. Luce, and made him Knight Constable of England, &c. On his tomb, bread is given away every Sunday, to some indigent parishioners. Another monument records the memory of a native of Tideswelle, named Robert Pursglove, described as a Prior of Gisburn Abbey, Prebend of Rotherham, and Bishop of Hull, who died in the year 1579. Henry the Eighth[2] allowed him a pension, in reward for his ready compliance, with his wishes ; his conduct, as Dugdale records, being so very obsequious, that, after he had surrendered his own house, he was employed as a commissioner to persuade others to do the like. At the beginning of Queen Mary's reign[2], he was made Archdeacon of Nottingham, Suffragan of Hull, &c. but refusing to take the oath of supremacy to Elizabeth I[2], he was deprived of his Archdeaconry, and other spiritualities, in the year 1560. He afterwards retired to this town and founded a Grammar-School, which adjoins the churchyard ; and a Hospital for twelve poor people. In the south transept is a tomb, with whole-length figures of a man and a woman, of whom nothing is with certainty known ; but tradition represents them as the effigies of Thurstan de Bower and his wife, who are said to have built the transept.
The town of Tideswell consists of two rows of low houses, built of rough gray stones, on the opposite sides of a clear rivulet. The weekly market is held on Wednesday, but it is not much attended. The place consists of about 250 houses, and 1100 inhabitants, who are supported chiefly by the mining business."
Litton and Wormhill were hamlets in the parish of Tideswell.

In the Archdeaconry of Derby.
The Gentleman's Magazine Library

"Tizinetun. The liberty contains about forty-four houses and one hundred and ninety-two inhabitants. The living is a curacy; and the church is dedicated to St. Mary. It formerly belonged to the priory at Tutbury.
Near Tissington is Tissington Hall, the ancient seat of the Fitzherberts, who have resided here since the end of the fifteenth century. The estate, in more remote times, belonged to the Savages and from them descended to the Herthulls and Meynells.
That portion of the estate which belonged to the latter, came by inheritance to the Fitzherberts, (who came originally from Norbury) through the families of Clinton and Fraunceys, about the commencement of the fifteenth century. The part that was in possession of the Herthulls, descended from them to the Cokaines of Ashbourn, who sold it to the Fitzherberts, in the reign of James the First. William Fitzherbert, Esq. of this place, who died in 1772, left two surviving sons, William and Alleyne. William, who was Recorder of Derby in 1783, was raised in the same year to the dignity of a Baronet, and died in 1791. He left several children, the eldest of whom, Sir Henry Fitzherbert, Bart. is now possessor of the estate and title.
Alleyne, the brother of Sir William, has attained some degree of political eminence. He has been minister at Brussels, Petersburgh, and Madrid; secretary to the Marquis of Buckingham, when Lord Lieutenant of Ireland; and in 1782 negociated the peace of which preliminaries were signed at Paris, in the January of the following year. He was raised to an Irish Peerage, in 1791; and to a Peerage of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801, by the title of Baron of St. Helen's."
In the Deanery of Ashbourne.

Tissington Church
Tissington Hall

A hamlet in the parish of Dronfield. See Dronfield.

See Eckington.

"supposed to be the Toxenai of Domesday, is a small parish, not containing many houses. The living is a rectory, and the church is dedicated to All-saints.
A very respectable family of the name of Coke formerly resided at Trusley. Sir Francis, who lived here in the time of Charles the First, had a brother, whose name was John who was Secretary of State in the king's reign [there is more about him, but it is not included here]. George, another brother of Sir Francis Coke, was, successively, Bishop of Bristol and Hereford. He was involved in the same condemnation as the rest of the Bishops, passed, for their signing the protest in parliament, in order to secure the preservation of their privileges ; and is said to have died in reduced circumstances, on the 10th of December, 1646."
In the Deanery of Castillar.

See North Wingfield.

"contains about 40 houses; and its chapel is set down at the clear value of £4."
In the Deanery of Derby.

[Twyford] See Barrow

Parishes U

A hamlet in the parish of Bakewell. "Upper Haddon contains about 40 houses. The inhabitants ... rely on the mining business."
In the Archdeaconry of Derby.

Parishes W

(Waletune) Part of the parish of Chesterfield. See Chesterfield.

"At the time of the Norman survey, there were at Waletune "a church and a priest, and a mill of 6 shillings and 8 pence, and 40 acres of meadow, value 10 pounds. The living is a rectory, and the present church is dedicated to St. John the Baptist.
In the fifteenth year of Edward II[1], Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, being pursued by the king, placed his foot on each side of the bridge at Burton, to prevent his passage over the Trent. By this precaution he obliged the king to ford the river at Walton. - When the Earl discovered this, he drew his men out of Tutbury castle, expecting a reinforcement, but being disappointed, he fled towards the North."
In the Deanery of Repington.

"The village of Wardlow is also within the parish of Bakewell, and contains, together with its liberty, about twenty houses. In the year 1759, the Rev. Evat of Ashford, examined a barrow situated near this village, an account of which was published in the Philosophical Transactions for that year."
In the Archdeaconry of Derby

A township in the parish of Darley. See Darley.
Wensley - Kelly's 1891 Directory

Hamlet in the parish of Crich and Deanery of Derby. See Crich.

"in Domesday called Halen, is a small village containing from seventy to eighty houses. The living is a rectory, and the church is dedicated to St. Wilfred."
In the Deanery of Derby.

[Weston-on-Trent] "At the Norman survey, we find that in Westune (Weston) "with the Berewicks, Earl Algar had ten caracutes of land, and two ox-gangs and a half to be taxed. Land to as many ploughs. There are now in the desmense three ploughs and twenty-four villanes and six bordars, having twelve ploughs, and four farmers paying sixteen shillings. There are two churches and a priest, and one mill of nineteen shillings and fourpence, and fifty-one acres of meadow. Pasture half a mile long, and three quarentens broad. Value in King Edward's time £8. now £16."
Weston was distinguished by some peculiar privileges, in the reign of King John.[3] By a patent granted in the sixteenth year of his reign, the inhabitants were exempted from all services of counties, hundreds, tithings and wapentakes; from the appearance of frank-pledge; from aids and charities; from demands, gratifications and complaints, to which the villages and bailiwicks are subject. The church is dedicated to St. Mary; and the living is a rectory, under the patronage of Sir R Wilmot. Its value in the king's books is £11 16s. 3d. and yearly tenths, £1 3s. 7½d'. 'The parish of Weston is not very extensive, and the number of houses is not great. The village is situated near the canal and the Trent, and the inhabitants have been much employed in the navigation upon each."
In the Deanery of Derby.

Weston-Upon-Trent, stereoview

Hamlet in the parish of Mugginton. See Mugginton.

A township in the parish of Tideswell.

"At the compilation of Domesday, Witintune was a bailiwick in the manor of Newbold. The living is a rectory, and the church is dedicated to St. Bartholemew. The village is small.
Whittington had the honor of witnessing the beginning of that association, which does so much credit to those who embarked their lives and fortunes in it, and the happy result of which we are all feeling at the present time. No longer able to bear the arbitrary measures of James the Second, nor the destruction of the protestant religion, which he evidently meditated, a few Worthies, whose names will ever be dear to the lovers of British freedom, in the year 1688, met each other on Whittington-moor, for the express purpose of devising some means, for rescuing their country from the double slavery with which it was threatened.
[There follows an account of the meeting at the Revolution House to discuss the overthrow of the King. This is described more fully in The Gentleman's Magazine Library elsewhere on the web site; the information provides both descriptions of the house and the event itself. There is also an engraving of the Revolution House]
In an enclosure not far from the village, is a chalybeate spring, which from the tests employed, has been found to contain about the same quantity of iron as those situated at Quarndon and Buxton. The respect in which it differs from them most materially is that it parts more freely with the fixed air, with which it is impregnated."
In the Deanery of Chesterfield.

"In the time of the Conqueror, there were a church and a priest at Witeuuelle. The living is a rectory, the church is dedicated to St. Lawrence, and the presentation belongs to the Duke of Rutland. The parish contains about 142 houses; and the inhabitants rely chiefly upon agriculture for support."
In common with Barlborough, "it has a considerable population."
In the Deanery of Chesterfield.

See North Wingfield.

See Wilsley

"called in Domesday Welledene and Willetune, was then partly possessed by the king and partly by Ralph the son of Hubert. The living is a vicarage; the church is dedicated to St. Michael, and according to Ecton, formerly belonged to the priory of Repton. The patrons are the Governors of Etwall Hospital."
In the Deanery of Derby.

Chapelry in parish of Sawley (there is more information under Sawley).
In the Deanery of Derby.
Also see Aston as the hamlet was also given as being within that parish.

"in Domesday called Winlesley, is a small village, containing but few houses. It was, for some centuries, the residence of the Abney family. They had a seat at Wilsley as early as the reign of Henry VI[2]; and at a still later period, in 1656, James Abney, of Wilsley, Esq. was High Sheriff for the county of Derby."
In the Deanery of Repington. The living is a donative curacy, "of the value of £12. The chapel is dedicated to St. Thomas and formerly belonged to the Abbey of Burton."

Township in the parish of Duffield. See Duffield.

"in the time of the Conqueror[2], was a soke of the manor of Newbold, and is written Wingreurde. In the twenty-fifth year of Edward I.[4] there was a church here; as Henry de Brailsford was possessed of its advowson. The living is a curacy: under the patronage of Dean of Lincoln. 'The parish is thought to contain about 310 inhabitants, many of whom find employment at the works, carried on here, of smelting iron ore.
WINGERWORTH-HALL, the mansion of Sir Windsor Hunloke, Bart. is a spacious building, standing in an elevated situation, and commanding several extensive prospects into the neighbouring country. The family of Hunloke is of considerable antiquity; and in the reign of Henry VIII. was possessed of some considerable estates in Middlesex and Nottinghamshire. The Wingerworth estate was anciently the property of the Brailsfords, and descended from them to the Curzons of Kedleston, who sold it; in the time of Queen Elizabeth, to Nicholas Hunloke. Henry, the fourth in descent from the first possessor, was distinguished for his attachment to Charles the First: He lent the king a considerable sum of money: raised and accoutered a troop of horse for his service: and in the twenty-second year of his age, signalized himself at the battle of Edge-Hill, where he was knighted: soon afterwards he was created a Baronet. During the Commonwealth, the family were obliged to quit Wingerworth, which was converted into a garrison for the forces Parliament: but Sir Henry Hunloke's widow, marrying one of Cromwell's Officers, the mansion did not suffer any great injury, and the estate was preserved in the family, Since that period, the family have regularly resided here, with the same title as the original proprietor, to the present time. The Hall, now standing, was built between the years 1726 and 1730, by Sir Thomas Windsor Hunloke, grandfather of the present possessor.
On Stainedge Cliff, which forms a part of the Wingerworth estate, are several rock-basins, and two seats, supposed by Mr. Rooke to have been appropriated to the purposes of augury."
In the Deanery of Chesterfield.

See either North Wingfield or South Wingfield.

"Wineshalle, is a hamlet situated in the parish of Newton-Solney, though it belongs to that of Burton, in Staffordshire. It contains fifty houses, and the inhabitants rely entirely on agriculture for their support; no manufacture being carried on in this part of Derbyshire."
In the Deanery of Repington.

"anciently Winsterne, is a small market town [a chapelry in the parish of Youlgrave], where a weekly market is held. It contains about 230 houses, whose inhabitants are employed in working the lead mines, and in preparing cotton for spinning. On the common, near the town, are several cairns, or stone barrows, and also two or three barrows of earth. One of the latter was opened in the year 1768, and in it were found two glass vessels, between eight and ten inches in height, containing about a pint of light-green coloured limpid water.—At the same time were discovered, a silver collar and bracelet, studded with human heads, together with some small ornaments : one of which was of fillagree-work of gold and silver gilt, and set with garnets or red glass. There were also, several square and round beads of various colours, of glass and earth : and in some remains of brass claspsand hinges, with a piece of wood, which appeared to be part of a box in which the ornaments had been deposited. Several of these are now in the possesion of a gentleman of Bakewell. From the above antiquities, it is supposed, that the barrow was raised over some Briton of distinction, shortly after the Roman invasion."

In the Archdeaconry of Derby.

"is thought to be a town of great antiquity; but its existence cannot be traced back beyond the Conquest. At the Norman survey (1086) there were in "Werchefourde a priest and a church, and sixteen villanes, and nine borders, having four ploughs. There were three lead mines there, and twenty-six acres of meadow." At this time the manor was included in the Wapentake of Hammenstan and the property of King William. In the reign of king John, it became the property of the Earl of Ferrers's family, at the same time as Ashbourn. It was afterwards annexed to the Earldom and Duchy of Lancaster, of which the Manor and, Wapentake of Wirksworth are still members. The present lessee is, Richard Paul Joddrell, Esq. a gentleman well known in the literary world, as an elegant classical scholar.
The Dean of Lincoln has a manor within the town, in right of his church; and the Gells of Hopton have another manor in the town and neighbourhood, called the Holland or Richmond Manor, from its having belonged to the Hollands, Lords Holland, and Dukes of Exeter; and afterwards to the Countess of Richmond, mother to Henry the Seventh. In the Holland Manor-House, the manufacture of Porcelain was attempted, about forty years ago, but proving unsuccessful, it was relinquished.
Wirksworth lies in a low valley, almost surrounded by hills; generally enveloped in the smoke, issuing from the neighbouring lead and calamine works. Here the features of the country, begin to assume a bold and prominent appearance ; cultivation becomes less general, and the enclosures, instead of being encompassed by hedges, are, chiefly, fenced with stone walls.
The church, which is dedicated to St. Mary, is a handsome Gothic building, apparently of the fourteenth century. It consists of a nave, and side aisles, a North and South transept, a chancel, and a square tower, supported on four large pillars in the centre. On the northern side, is the dormitory belonging to the Gells of Hopton, in which are the tombs of Ralph Gell, and his son Anthony, who, in the time of Queen Elizabeth, was a Bencher of the Inner-Temple, and Feodary of Derbyshire ; there are also tablets, to the memory of three Baronets of the same family. The church contains, also, monuments of the Lowes, and Hurts, of Alderwasley, and of the Wigleys, of Wigwell.— On the tomb to the memory of Antonye Lowe, Esq. who, from the inscription, appears to have been employed by the sovereigns, Henry the Seventh, Edward the Sixth, and Queen Mary, is placed a recumbent figure of the deceased, having round the neck, a representation of a chain of gold, and a medallion of Queen Mary, now in the possession of Francis Hurt, Esq. of Alderwasley, his lineal successor.
Near the churchyard is a Grammar-school, founded by Anthony Gell Esq. of Hopton, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth[5] ; to which, one Agnes Fearne, was a very considerable contributor. The lands left for the maintenance of this charity, produce a rental, equal to the support of a better establishment, than is at present kept up.
There is an Alms-house, established by the same Anthony Gell, at Wirksworth, for six poor men, and endowed with twenty pounds per annum.
The Moot-Hall, is a respectable structure of brick, erected in the year 1773: here all causes respecting the lead mines within the Wapentake are tried; and here is also deposited, the ancient brass dish, which is the standard from which others are made; to measure the lead ore.
The weekly market at Wirksworth, which is held on Tuesday, was obtained in the year 1307, by Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, grandson of Henry III. The number of houses, with in the township, is thought to be about 674, with a population of about 2979 inhabitants. The latter derive their chief support from the working of the lead mines; but between 200 and 300 hands are employed in the cotton-mill in the neighbourhood. The town contains some good houses, and is the residence of a few genteel families.
Wirksworth, has scarcely any supply of common water, but has a strong medicinal water of the sulphureous kind. This spring is situated at a small distance from the town, near the road leading to Ashbourn. It contains both sulphur and iron, and is said to be also impregnated with a purging salt ; but the quantity of each is very inconsiderable.
The parish of Wirksworth contains, besides the before-mentioned chapelries [i.e. Alderwasley, Hopton, Middleton and Cromford] the hamlets of Caulow, Biggin, Halton, Hitheridge-Hay and Ashley-Hay, consisting altogether of about 80 houses. In the middle of Biggin, there is a considerable sulphorous spring, of the same impregnation as that of Kedleston."
In the Deanery of Ashbourne.
The Gentleman's Magazine Library

Wirksworth Parish Church
Saxon carving, Wirksworth - inside the church

A hamlet in the parish of Dronfield. See Dronfield.

See Eyam [Eyam Woodlands].

See North Wingfield.

"Wruenelle, is another hamlet in this parish [Tideswell], and contains about 30 houses.; its chapel is dedicated to St. Margaret. Near this little village, is a most romantic and deep hollow, where the river Wye flows beneath a stupendous mass of rock, called Chee Tor,—a vast perpendicular mass of limestone, rising more than 360 feet above the level of the river which meanders at its base. The channel of the river is here confined between huge rocks of limestone, which seem, from their general correspondence of situation and form, to have been once united. In some parts, they are partially covered with brushwood, nut-trees, and mountain-ash ; in others, they are totally naked, precipitous, and impending. The chasm runs in a direction so nearly circular, that the sublime Chee Tor, and its dependant masses of rock, are almost insulated by the river which rolls at their feet. Its length, as far at least as it possesses any considerable beauty, is between five and six hundred yards ; a distance which presents several picturesque and interesting views. Some plantations on the neighbouring heights increase the general effect of the scenery. Near the bottom of the steep descent that leads to this spot from the village, is a strong spring, from which a great quantity of water flows into the river. About midway up the acclivity, the limestone stratum gives way to a mass of toadstone of considerable extent, above which another stratum of limestone occurs. From a particular station in this romantic scene, the four vallies of Wye Dale, Chee Dale, Flag Dale, and Water Dale, may all be seen, together with the Tor and the river :—these dales will afford the Botanist many curious plants.
A small hamlet in the liberty of Wormhill, had the honor of giving birth to that extraordinary genius, the late Mr. Brindley, so celebrated for planning navigable Canals. We shall copy the interesting memoir of him, given by Dr. Aiken, in his History of the Country round Manchester.

"JAMES BRINDLEY, was born at Tunsted in the parish (liberty) of Wormhill, Derbyshire, in 1716. His father was a small freeholder, who dissipated his property in company and field-amusements, and neglected his family. In consequence, young Brindley was left destitute of even the common rudiments of education, and till the age of seventeen, was casually employed in rustic labors. At that period he bound himself to one Bennet, a mill-wright, at Macclesfield, Cheshire, where his mechanical genius presently developed itself. The master being frequently absent, the apprentice was often left for weeks together to finish pieces of work, concerning which he had received no instruction; and Bennet on his return, was often greatly astonished to see improvements in various parts of mechanism of which he had no previous conception. It was not long before the millers discovered Brindley's merits, and preferred him in the execution of their orders to the master, or any other workman. At the expiration of his servitude, Bennet being grown into years, he took the management of the business upon himself; and by his skill and industry, contributed to support his old master and his family, in a comfortable manner.
"In process of time, Brindley set up as a mill-wright on his own account, and by a number of new and ingenious contrivances, greatly improved that branch of mechanics, an acquired a high reputation in the neighbourhood. His fame extending to a wider circle, he was employed in 1752 to erect a water engine at Clifton, in Lancashire, for the purpose of draining some coal mines. Here he gave an essay of his abilities in a kind of work for which he was afterwards so much distinguished,—driving a tunnel under ground, through a rock nearly 600 yards in length, by which water was brought out of the Irwell, for the purpose of turning a wheel fixed thirty feet below the surface of the earth. In 1755 he was employed to execute the large wheels for a silk mill at Congleton: and another person, who was engaged to make other parts of the machinery, and to superintend the whole, proving incapable of completing the work, the business was entirely committed to Brindley ; who not only executed the original plan, in a masterly manner, but made the addition of many curious and valuable improvements, as well in the construction of the engine itself, as in the method of making the wheels and pistons belonging to it. About this time, too, the mills for grinding flints in the Staffordshire Potteries received several improvements from his ingenuity.
"In the year 1756 he undertook to erect a steam engine upon a new plan, at Newcastle-under-Line ; and was for a time very intent upon a variety of contrivances for improving this useful piece of mechanism. But from these designs, he was, happily for the public, called away, to take the lead, in what the event has proved to be a national concern of high importance—the projecting of the system of Canal Navigation. The Duke of Bridgewater, (to whose patronage the subsequent success of this system is incontestibly owing) had formed a design of carrying a canal from his coal works at Worsley to Manchester, and was induced by the reputation of Mr. Brindley to consult him as to the most judicious mode of executing it ; and having the sagacity to conceive, and strength of mind to confide in the original and commanding abilities of this self-taught genius, he committed to him to the management of the arduous undertaking.
"In the progress of this enterprize, which was attended with complete success, Mr. Brindley projected and adopted those leading principles for the execution of these kind of works which he afterwards adhered to, and in which he had been intimated by all succeeding artists. To preserve as much as possible the level of his canals, and the avoid the mixture and interference of all natural streams, were objects at which he constantly aimed. To accomplish these neither labour nor expence were spared ; his genius seemed to delight in overcoming all obstacles by the discovery of new and extraordinary contrivances.
"The most experienced engineers upon former systems were amazed and confounded at his project of aqueduct bridges over navigable rivers, mounds across deep vallies, and subterraneous tunnels, nor could they believe in the practicability of some of these schemes till they saw them effected. In the execution, the ideas he followed were all his own ; and the minutest as well as the greatest expedients he employed here the stamp of originality.
"Every man of genius is an enthusiast : Mr. Brindley was an enthusiast in favor of the superiority of canal navigations above those of rivers ; and this triumph of art over nature led him to view, with a sort of contempt, the winding stream, in which the love of rural beauty so much delights. This sentiment he is said to have expressed in striking manner at an examination before a committee of the House of Commons, when on being asked, after he had made some contemptuous remarks relative to rivers, what he conceived what they were created for:—he answered, To feed navigable canals.
" After the successful execution of the Duke of Bridgewater's canal to the Mersey, Mr. Brindley was employed in the revived design of carrying a canal from that river to the Trent, through the counties of Chester and Stafford. This undertaking was commenced in the year 1766; and from the great ideas it opened in the mind of its conductor a scheme of inland navigation, which should connect all internal parts of England with each other, and with the principal sea-ports by means of branches from this main stem, he gave it the emphatic name of the Grand Trunk. In executing this, he was called upon to employ all resources of his invention, in account of the unequality, and various nature of the ground to be cut through : in particular the hill of Hare Castle, which was only to be passed by a tunnel of great length, bored through strata of different consistency, and some of them mere quicksand, proved to be a most difficult and expensive obstacle, which, however, he completely surmounted. While this was carrying on, a branch from the Grand Trunk, to join the Severn near Bewdley, was committed to his management, and finished in 1772. He was also concerned in the projection and execution of several others ; and indeed there was scarcely any design of canal navigation set on foot in this kingdom during the latter years of his life, in which he was not consulted, and the plan of which he did not entirely form, or revise and improve.
"The attention and application which all his various and complicated employments required probably shortened his days ; as the number of his undertakings, in some degree, impaired his usefulness. He fell into a kind of chronic fever, which after continuing some years, with but little intermission, at length wore out his frame, and put a period of his life, on September the 27th, 1772, in the 56th year of his age. He died at Turnhurst in Staffordshire, and was buried at New Chapel, in the same county.
"In appearance and manners, as well as acquirements, Mr. Brindley was a mere peasant. Unlettered, and rude in speech, it was easier for him to devise means of executing a design, than to communicate his ideas concerning it to others. Formed by nature for the profession he assumed, it was there alone that he was in his proper element : and so occupied was his mind with his business, that he was incapable of relaxing in any common amusements of life. As he had not the ideas of other men to assist him, whenever a point of difficulty in contrivance occurred, it was his custom to retire to his bed, where in perfect solitude, he would lie one, two, or three days, pondering the subject in his mind, till the requisite expedient had presented itself. This is that true inspiration which poets have exclusively arrogated to themselves, but which men of original genius, in every walk, are actuated by, when from the operation of the mind, acting upon itself, without the intrusion of foreign notions, they create and invent. A remarkable retentive memory was one of the essential qualities which Mr. Brindley brought to his mental operations. This enabled him to execute all the parts of the most complex machine in due order, without any help of models or drawings, provided he had once settled the whole plan in his mind. In his calculations of the powers of machines, he followed a plan peculiar to himself ; but indeed the only one he could follow without instruction in the rules of art. He would work the question some time in his head, and then set down the result in figures : then taking it up in this stage, he would proceed by a mental operation to another result, and thus he would go on till the whole was finished ; and making use of figures only to mark the several results of his operations.—But, though by the wonderful powers of his native genius, he was thus enabled to get over his want of artificial method to a certain degree, yet there is no doubt that when his concerns became extremely complicated, with accounts of various kinds to keep, and calculations of all kinds to form, he could not avoid that perplexity and embarrassment which a readiness in the processes carried on by pen and paper can alone obviate. His estimated of expence have generally proved wide of reality : and he seems to have been better qualified to have been the contriver than the manager of a great design. His moral qualities were highly respectable. He was far above envy and jealousy, and freely communicated his improvements to persons capable of receiving and executing them ; taking a liberal satisfaction in forming a new generation of engineers, able to proceed with the great plans in the success of which he was so deeply interested. His integrity, and regard to the advantage of his employers, were unimpeachable. In fine [time], the name of Brindley, will ever keep a place among that small number of mortals who form eras in the art or science to which they devote themselves, by a large and durable extension of its limits.[6] "

In the Archdeaconry of Derby

Parishes Y

"in Domesday, Gheveli, is a chapelry under Shirley, consisting of about 50 houses. Here there was formerly a Hermitage, which in the reign of Richard I.[7] was given by Ralph le Fun, with all its appurtenances and revenues, to the Knights Hospitallers of St. John. Sir William Meynil, Lord of the town, was, in the year 1268, a great benefactor to this religious house. It was dedicated to St. Mary and St. John the Baptist.
At the Dissolution, its revenues, together with those of another preceptory at Barrow, were valued at £93. 3s. 4d. This house was granted, in the twenty-fifth year of Henry VIII. to Charles, Lord Mountjoy."

In the Deanery of Castillar.

See Ashbourne.

"by the Norman surveyors called Giolgrave, is a parish and village containing about 140 houses and 650 inhabitants, who are principally supported by agriculture and the mining business. The living is a rectory, and the church is dedicated to All Saints. In the reign of Henry the Second, it was given, with its chapels, to the Abbey at Leicester ; but it was presented by Edward VI. to William Cavendish ; whose descendant, the Duke of Devonshire is the present patron. The whole parish contains the chapelries of Winster and Elton; the hamlets of Alport, Birchover, Stanton, Stanton-Leys, Middleton, Gratton and some smaller places."

In the Archdeaconry of Derby.

Parishes Z

No Parishes

Notes on the above:

[1] Ninth of Edward II was the year 1316, Fifteenth of Edward II was 1322.

[2] William the Conqueror reigned 1066-87; Richard II reigned 1377-1399; Henry VI reigned 1399-1413; Henry VIII reigned 1509-1547; Mary reigned 1553-1558; Elizabeth reigned 1558-1603.

[3] King John Yr.16 was 1215, the year of Magna Carta.

[4] Twenty-fifth year of Edward I was 1297.

[5] Anthony Gell's Grammar School founded 1576, though the edition of Pevsner's architectural guide of Derbyshire owned by the web mistress has 1584.

[6] James Brindley had married Ann Henshall on 8 Dec 1765 and the couple had two daughters. James was buried at in the churchyard at Newchapel STS on 25 Sep 1772. Administration of his estate, was granted at Lichfield on 10 Dec 1772. The documents show that Hugh Henshall, his brother in law, was administering the estate as Brindley's wife had renounced her rights. The Brindleys two daughters were very young when their father died: Ann (not yet 3) and Susannah (not yet one). Almost three years later a report of the completion of the subterraneous Tunnel of Norwood Hill, on the Canal connecting Chesterfield and the River Trent, was published. Hugh Henshall had completed the work ("Derby Mercury", 19 May 1775).

[7] Richard I reigned 1189-99.

Davies' book
An Ann Andrews book transcript