Picture Gallery> Derbyshire Pictures Index> This page
The Andrews Pages Picture Gallery : Derbyshire
A selection of photographs, prints and postcards. Some have personal or family connections
Crich Parish Church & Mr. John Clay, Gentleman
exterior, showing the tower, spire and porch - about 1905

In 1818 Henry Moore observed that "the church, which has a spire, is built upon the limestone, with a very inconsiderable covering of earth, so that the graves are necessarily very shallow, except in some instances where the rock is blasted with gunpowder to deepen them, which sometimes creates an expense of three or four pounds for making a single grave"[1].

A couple of years later Ebenezer Rhodes "ascended the church tower from within, and from the top of it a view is obtained of a wide extent of country, intersected with roads, rivers and canals, studded with villages and houses, vales and eminences — in some places bright with sunny fields — in others, dark with masses of interweaving wood; the whole presenting to the eye of the spectator and immense panorama of interesting objects"[2]. Equally, "the church and stand are very conspicuous objects from a distance of several miles around"[3]. The stand Rhodes mentioned was replaced, then demolished and a new one built on a slightly different site.

Whilst the older parts of the church were begun in the time of Stephen (reigned 1135-1154), most of the building is 14th century. This includes the tower and spire, the chancel with a priest's doorway and the old stone lectern[4]. Bassano (1710) mentions a north porch, which has long gone, in addition to the one of the south side shown above[5].

1877, also showing the church, tower and porch
South East view, 1877.
The church had been restored in 1861.

Before William Chawner became the vicar of Crich in 1855 St. Mary's was described as "a miserable place, it was so cold you could hardly sit in it, and at the communion there had been only the minister, the clerk, one woman, and at times the choir consisted of only a bass viol. There was neither Sunday nor Day School"![6]. It must have been pretty grim.

J. C. Cox tells us the then earliest register (1617 to 1640) was "much damaged, badly written and in a few places quite illegible". However, in the summer of 1877 he was [and possibly others were] responsible for restoring an earlier register "to the parish chest" (1564-1593) which a Croydon gentleman, Mr. Hovenden, had bought at an auction[5]. The following entries were found:-

"Marmaduke Babington sepultus fuit decimo septo Januarii, 1587" (i.e.1587/8).
"Germanus Poole de Wakebridge sepultus fuit vicessimo sexto dis Aprilis, 1588."
"Theophilus Claye sepultus fuit secundo die Marcii, 1590 (i.e 1590/1)."
"Petrus Poole sepultus fuit vicessimo die Septembria, 1590."[5]

Interior, early 20th century
Over the chancel arch was a biblical quotation:
"Him that cometh to ME I will in no wise cast out"
(John VI, v.37)[7]

During the 1861 restoration[8] the rood screen, between and chancel and the body of the
church, was removed. It was later found in a Derby builder's yard by the Rev. William Hope
and taken to St. Peter's, Derby, where it remained for 60 years. The Derby church then applied
for a faculty to remove it, stating that "this screen is of no artistic beauty" and in March 1923
it was restored to its original place[9]. This explains why there is an uninterrupted view of
the sanctuary and altar from the clerestoried nave in this attractive early 20th century photo.

Inside the church are a number of interesting memorials. Sir William de Wakebridge, who lost his entire family within three months during the Black Death, was buried here. His effigy shows him wearing a long gown, buttoned from neck to hips, and with his feet resting on a dog[4]. Cox recounts how he was a considerable benefactor to the church, founding one chantry shortly after the family catastrophe and a second in 1368[10]. He had also built a chapel in a detached building at his Wakebridge manor house with "an orgayne and other costly devices"[5].

When Wakebridge died there were no male heirs, so the manor of Wakebridge passed down through his sister Cecilia, who was married to Sir John Pole [sometimes Poole]. Their descendant, German Pole, inherited Wakebridge in 1537. He married twice though had no issue. His second wife, Margaret, went on to marry John Clay (as Clay's second wife) although was later buried in the church at Crich with her first husband (see chart below). The inventory of German Poole's effects, praysed 11 May 1588, lists a room called The Chappell Chamber and also shows items "In the Chappell" itself, including a table - of 3£ total value[11].

Moore (1818) noted the existence of the remains of this chapel: when travelling from Holloway "On the left is a farmhouse where formerly stood Wakebridge chapel. The east window still remains in the end of a barn at the back of the house which is the only discernible indication of the chapel".[1] Cox, later in the same century, commented that the large barn which now stands on the site of the chapel has no trace of antiquity, or any ecclesiastical feature about it"[5].

There are also tombs or brass plates dating from this period dedicated to Godfrey Beresford (an altar tomb), to John Kirkland yeoman and to Robert and Margaret Marshall[12]. A stone coffin is said to be underneath the Marshall's plate (Reynolds)[5]. Another commemorates Thomas Shelmerdine's infant son Ephraim; John Clay was the patron of Shelmerdine in the early years that he was vicar of Crich[12].

The Clay tomb

As a young Clay growing up, when the family talked about another of the tombs – the alabaster monument of John Clay within Crich church – it became an important feature in the web mistress's family history research. Very disappointingly, by the time Reynolds wrote his "Derbyshire Church Notes" in the mid eighteenth century, John Clay's tomb was "so much worn with boys climbing upon it, whilst the churchwardens suffered one Joseph Mather ... to teach school in the chancel (which infamous practice was continued till about 1732), that most of the writing is obliterated"[5].

The tomb was erected in 1603, so after the deaths of both his wives and of his two sons. It was also after the marriage of John's daughter Penelope, but before those of his two other daughters.

Reynolds provides the following about the top of the tomb:

"Here lieth John Clay gentleman and Mary whom he first did wive.
With her he lived near eight years space in which God gave them children five.
Daughter to William Calton Esquir who was unto that Kynge of fame
Henrie the eight chief cock matcher and servant of his hawkes by name.
And as she had a former match, Charnell of Swarston in Lestershire,
So shee deceast this Clay did take the widow of German Pole, Esquire.
Daughter of Edward who was son to Sir John Ferrers of Tamworth, Knight.
Shee lyes entombed in this church with him to whom she first was plight.
And nowe this Claye is closed in Claye, the fairest flesh doth fade like grass.
He had on sister who unto Stuffyn of Shirbrook married was.
For deathe doth gyve an end to all and now this Clay shall reste herein.
All claye to claye shall com at last by Death the due reward of synne.
Thou Deathe, his Deathe, thy Deathe is he whose soule doth live with Christ for aye.
The stinge of death can no one flee, then greatest monarchs are but Claye."

[Please note that the inscription was in Roman capitals, but, to make it easier to read, it is presented here in mixed case. The above section also contained insertions in square brackets that filled the gaps (or "chasms") where the text was missing. The additions were made by Adam Wolley of Matlock. He was using information extracted from Bassano[5]. The brackets are not shown as it makes the whole harder to read.]

There are three escutcheons; first, the arms of Claye; secondly, those of Clay impaling both Calton and Ferrers; thirdly, Calton alone.

"From the easternmost edge of this tablet to the S. E. corner of the tomb, and over the east end is written:

Iste Johannes obiit mortem _ _ _ mensis [Maii] Anno [1632,][sic]* _ _ _ et ista Maria obiit mortem [31] mensis [Augusti, Anno] 1583"
*should read 1633

Three panels on the south side of the tomb

These contain the names of Mr. Clay's three daughters: Susanna, Mary and Penelope are each kneeling on a cushion, with their faces turned to the east. Behind Susanna and Mary are three escutcheons with the dexter half being uncharged as they were unmarried when the tomb was built. Behind Penelope** (hers is the most easterly panel) is an escutcheon that includes the Brailsford arms and on her cushion are the words "Nupta Erat Thome Brailsford de Senor", indicating her marital status.
**Penelope wished to be interred in "the Chancell of the parish church of Chrich where her brother was buried"[13].

On the east end of the tomb

John and Mary's two sons, William and Theophilus, with their names written above their heads, are also kneeling on cushions, but are facing north: "by each of them is Written, Mortuss Est; and under the cushions " ISTI FILII OBIEBANT IN JUVENTUTE SUA" [these children died in youth].

Reynolds goes on to state that "upon the partition betwxt the church and cancel, on that side next the chancel, is written the following inscription (over this last mentioned tomb) in antique letters:

Soules they are made of Heavenly spirit ;
From whence they come ye heavens inherite.
But knowe that bodyes made of Claye :
Death will devoure by night or daye
Yett is hee as hee was I saye :
Be livinge or dead remayneth Claye.
His very name that nature gave ;
Is nowe as shalbe in his grave.
Tymes both teache, experience tryes :
That claye to duste the winde up dryes.
Then this a wonder coumpt wee must :
That want of winde should make Claye dust

See Cley of Crich chart, below

Norman arches
"The interior contains strong Norman work in the aisle arcades"[14].
Notice the attractive scalloped capitol on the column closest to the pulpit and the later, small
pointed arch "inserted to connect the earlier work with the C14 chancel"[15].
The capitols we can see in this image are square whereas those opposite are round.

So who was John Clay?

In Trinity term, anno 27 Elizabeth (June/July 1584) Anthony Babington sold all his lands and tithes in Crich to John Clay of Crich, gent.[3]. However, the arms of Clay of Crich had first appeared in the 1569 Visitation[16] (see Cley of Crich chart, below) which indicates that the Clays were present in Crich at the time[17]. Their arms were later confirmed under the hand of Sir William Dethick in 1588. The word confirmed is significant here as tells us the arms already existed, seemingly through John Clay's grandfather John (who was also of Crich) so they were not "granted" in 1588. Flowers (& others) Visitation of 1592[18] also records the Clay arms at Crich. But the fact that the Clay arms were around earlier than some have thought may go help us eventually understand how and why they afterwards appeared in the families of the three Clay mayors, i.e. Hercules Clay of Newark (1644), Hercules Clay of Chesterfield (1654, 1661) and John Clay of Leicester (1655, 1672).

John Clay was both a friend and a kinsman of William Wryley, the author of "True Use of Armourie" (1592), through the Charnells of Leicestershire. Wryley mentioned him in notes about Crich written in his personal copy of the 1592 Visitation[17].

As the pedigree at the bottom of this page shows, John was the son of Robert and Emott Clay and his grandparents on his father's side were John Clay and [unknown] daughter of Lathbury. Towards the end of his life his sister Elizabeth was also living in his Crich home as the inventory of his will refers to "Mrs. Stuffins parloure"[19].

It is also worth pointing out that John Clay never was Sir John Clay. He was Mr. John Clay, a gentleman of Wakebridge, parish of Crich; he was a member of the Gentry, but neither he nor his forebears had been ennobled. The title Mr. respectfully underlines his importance in the community.

The arms state he was Clay "of Crich and Chappell" and numerous people have been convinced that Chappell meant Chapel-en-le-Frith. Yet no references have been found for Clays living in Chapel-en-le-Frith at this time. Another suggestion has been that "Chappell" is an error and should be Glapwell, where John Clay's parents were living in 1589[20]. However, I would venture to suggest that neither Chapel-en-le-Frith nor Glapwell belong to his arms; both Glapwell and the much more local Wakebridge were already taken so he could not have used either of them. Instead, I suggest that Chappell refers to the Chappell we know existed in Wakebridge, where John Clay lived (see above). Many pedigrees and grants of arms point to something very specific in their community and the inventory of his will shows "the neather Chappell field" was part of his estate[19].

Two "Cryche" men were part of a Muster for the Spanish Invasion in 1587; they were Robert Bunting and George Emott (with George Radford's name crossed through). They had "all trayned in May, 1588." – 400 men, in anticipation on the Spanish Invasion[21]. There is no evidence that John Clay was involved in the Armada.

In 1595 and 1596 John Clay was "charged wth horse" ("John Cley gent – Lances 0 – Light-horse j [1] – Petronells 0."), and also recorded in a Muster[21]. He was amongst the Derbyshire gentry who lent money to Queen Elizabeth I in 1598 and in 1600 he was asked to provide 20s towards 4 horses for Ireland that cost 30£ each[22]. There are other references to John, but not all of them are included here.

He was mentioned in a number of Wills, most notably that of Dame Elizabeth Talbot Countess of Shrewsbury. In the memorandum following the second codicil, is written: "Also she toulde the sayed Lord Caevndishe her sonne that Mr Claye of Criche did owe her one hundred poundes whereof she did give ffifttie pundes to the sayed Mr. Claye and ffiftie punndes she gave to his daughter Ms. Mary Claye"[23].

He left several interesting bequests in his own Will, written on the 23rd October 1629. Those to his family included one to "to the eldest son of my daughter Penelope [Brelsford] the Ringe I wear with my Arms upon it". Others also received gold rings to remember him by. The village of Crich was given forty shillings "towards them makinge & mendinge of all such Carrybyes bridges & highways within the Towneshipe", his servants were to be paid their wages and given an additional sum, whilst he hoped "those poore Tennants that I have or shall have at the tyme of my decease maye still Remayne ...[19]".

The inventory of his Will also showed that in his "haulle", amongst the buffets and little table, were "towe haulberts towe pistol one forest bill five browne bills foure leaden mantles one private Armoure Compleate  ---[with other?] ould Armoore with head peeces". These were not declared in earlier documentation, but suits of armour were very expensive items in Elizabethan and Jacobean England. Sometimes they were used for jousting and sometimes, seemingly, just as a fashion item[19].

Some 145 years after his death a significant piece of his furniture was offered for sale in Shirland. On 6 March 1778 "A ceiled bedstead formerly belonging to John Claye of Crich in Co. Derby, gent was exposed to sale this day at John Ludlams in Shirland. On the middle pannel of the head thereof was inlaid in wood, of proper colours, his arms and crest. ..."[24]

Crich is mentioned in the following extract from Joseph Besse:
"A Collection of the Sufferings of the People called Quakers"[25]
Besse states his work was" taken from original records and other Authentick Accounts".
It is included here because of a suggested link to John Clay.

ANNO 1661.
Violent dispersing of a meeting.
On the 26th of the Month called June this year, a Magistrate of the Town, with a rude Company, came to a meeting at Dronfield, and ordered the Assembly to depart... Three Days after this a Meeting at Eyam in the High-Peak, to which came a Constable with Soldiers, and plucked down Elizabeth Deane, then praying, dragging her out of Doors and shamefully tearing her Clothes. With like violence they drew out the rest, some by the Hair of the Head, others by the Legs with their heads on the Ground : After which they were carried to a justice of the Peace by those who had thus abused them, and refusing to give such Sureties for their good behaviour, they were by his Mittimus ordered to Derby Gaol; after which they were kept in all Night in a Barn, and next day conveyed to Crich, and there kept another Night in a Room, many of them lying on the Floor, nor having so much as Straw to lie on. Thus fatigued, they were carried the next Day after to Derby, being thirty one Men and ten Women ... they were kept Prisoners till the 18th of the next month.

The above extract does not make comfortable reading today.

This is the only reference to Crich in either of the two volumes by Besse. The barn he mentioned was presumably at or near Eyam. Whether the room at Crich, where the Quakers next went, was also a barn is not stated above. Besse meticulously named all the 41 people who were taken as prisoners to Derby, but not their abodes. He does not mention any similar incident at Crich in 1667[25] although, unfortunately, the date of the suffering is now widely recorded in various stories as being 1667, which it clearly wasn't.

What happened when the 1661 group of Quakers were in Crich was afterwards recounted in a story about Margaret Ridge, later Mrs. John Lynam, possibly found amongst extracts of her letters[26]. John Lynam had also been imprisoned at Derby, but not on this occasion. Margaret's story is given in A Quaker's Tale although the "room" at Crich mentioned by Besse (above) became "Squire Clay's barn" in the Lynam tale[27]. If the "barn" in the story did belong to Mr. John Clay (as the Squire) it should be remembered that he had died almost 30 years before so the barn was no longer his; it was then owned by Clay's great grandson Sir William Willoughby. But it could possibly be one of those historic associations that people remembered.

Other Derbyshire churches where the Clay family worshipped, were christened, married, buried or otherwise associated with, can be seen by clicking on the images below:

Ault Hucknall



North Wingfield



1. "Crich Church". Published by A. P. Co., St. Mary Axe, London E.C., Artistic Series, No.2352, Chromotyped in Saxony. Unused although on the back, in pencil, is August 10th 1905.
2. Heliotype plate from a photograph of "Crich S.E.", specially produced for Cox's book by Mr. R. Keene of Derby.[5].
3. "Crich Church Interior". No publisher, No.40-10. Printed in Great Britain. Guaranteed Real Photograph. Not posted. A message was written in pencil on the back of the card. Presumably it wasn't posted because the postal rate only allowed 5 words of greeting and the message was far too long.
4. "Crich Church", by Thomas Linthwaite Tudor[4].
All images in the collection of, provided by and © Ann Andrews.
Written, researched by and © Ann Andrews.
Intended for personal use only.


[1] Moore, Henry (1818) "Picturesque Excursions From Derby to Matlock Bath, and its Vicinity ; Being a Descriptive Guide to the Most Interesting Scenery and Curiosities in that Romantic District, With Observations Thereon", published by H. Moore, Drawing Master; Printed by T. Wilkinson, Ridgefield, Manchester.

[2] Rhodes, Ebenezer (1824) "Peak Scenery" pub. London, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, Paternoster Row.

[3] Glover, Stephen (1833) "The History and Gazetteer of the County of Derby ..." Edited by T. Noble. pub. Derby and London.

[4] Mee, Arthur (ed.) (1937) "Derbyshire: The Peak Country",The King's England Series, Hodder and Stoughton Limited, London.

[5] Cox, J Charles (1877) "Notes on the Churches of Derbyshire Vol III" Chesterfield: Palmer and Edmunds, London: Bemrose and Sons, 10 Paternoster Buildings; and Derby, The Hundreds of Appletree and Repton and Gresley. Cox used as his sources:
- Nichols, J. B. (1834) "Collectanea topographica et genealogica" Vol 1, published London. This book contained transcripts of "Derbyshire Church Notes", by Mr. John Reynolds junior of Plaistow, (mid. 18th c) from a copy in the Wolley Manuscripts, M.S. Add.6710 (that included some additions by Mr. Wolley, including words within brackets on the dedication and the charms next to them from MSS of Church Notes by Bassano).
Stuart Hill also very generously provided me with his own transcripts of Reynolds work some years ago.
See: The Wolley Manuscripts, Derbyshire: Charters, Documents & Deeds : Places C - E

[6] "Derbyshire Courier", 27 March 1880. The article refers to the state of the church and on Easter Day following Palm Sunday in 1855, William Chawner opened the Sunday School, then shortly after the day school and then set about warming the church. By 1872 they had "a warm church, a good organ and choir and a good attendance".

[7] The Biblical quotation over the chancel arch has been checked against the web mistress' Clay family copy of the King James' bible. It seemed appropriate to use it. The full quotation reads: "All that the Father giveth me shall come to me; and him that cometh to me I will in no wise cast out". I have not found the date when the quotation was removed from the arch.

[8] The church re-opened on Wednesday, 29 Mar, 1861, with two services held. The collection afterwards was to go to the Church Restoration Fund ("Derby Mercury", 22 May 1861).

[9] There are a number of references to the screen being discarded by the church at Crich and its later restoration to its original setting. The "Derby Daily Telegraph", 30 March 1921 reported the dissatisfaction of the St. Peter's Church people, that the Church Council at were pleased to have back again and the approval of Archaeological Society had been received. The "Derbyshire Times", 31 March 1923 briefly mentioned that it had been restored to Crich; its re-erection at St. Mary's was undertake by Mr. J. Roe Smith of Crich.

[10] Cox (above) records that the episcopal licence for the first chantry was obtained in 1357 and his second chantry, at the altar of the Blessed Virgin within the church, was obtained in 1368.
In addition the "Derbyshire Times" of 5 August 1871 featured a letter from J. C. Cox trying to resolve a "discussion" about whether the church was dedicated to St. Mary or St. Michael. He wrote that he had found amongst the charters of Thurgarton Priory in Nottinghamshire "one dated 42 Ed. 3 (1369), confirming the foundation of a chantry "in the church of St. Mary of Criche".

[11] Staffordshire, Dioceses Of Lichfield And Coventry Wills And Probate: Will of German Poole "of Wakebridge in the pishe of Chriche", written 1586, 19 Jul. Probate 1858, May 22.
The male line of Pole did not become extinct as German Pole's father had a second son, who in turn had two sons. These two lines of Pole lasted until 1724 and 1750 respectively (from Cox[5]).

[12] Thomas Shelmerdine was a Presbyterian Minister. He had held the living of Crich for a number of years so had lived in the village with his growing family, before moving to Matlock. He was eventually removed from that parish. Cox (above) records:
"N.B. Since the previous sheet passed through the press, we have found an institution to Crich vicarage in the Lichfield registers under the year 1629. Owing probably to it being spelt "Croich," it had escaped our previous notice. It is the institution of Thomas Shelmerdine, on the death of Edwin Woolley, and John Claye was then the patron".
See: Rectors of St. Giles Church, Matlock, 1300 - 1981+.

[13] PCC Will of Penelope Brelsford of Shirland, 1689 PROB 11/293.

[14] Tudor, Thomas Linthwaite (1926), "The High Peak to Sherwood, The hills and dales of old Mercia", published London by Robert Scott. With drawings by Fred Adcock and others.

[15] Pevsner, Nikolaus (1953), "The Buildings of England, Derbyshire", Penguin Books. Pevsner refers to Crich Parish Church as St. Michael's, which must be an error. Unfortunately, Kelly's 1855 "Kelly's P.O. Directory of Derbyshire" and "White's 1857 Directory", amongst others, allege that the dedication is to St. Michael.

[16] "Derbyshire Archaeological Journal" (DAJ below) (1914), Volume 36. "The arms of the gentlemen of Derbyshire in 1569, Part II", C-Z. Lawrance, H. (p45). Clay of Crich was found in Harl. MS. 6592. The author notes "This descent Mr. Cley did show, confirmed under the hand of Sir Wm. Dethick, Garter, Ao 3 r Eliz., 1588" (Geneal. vii.). He goes on to state that " it is evident that Clay should not be included amongst those whose arms were allowed in 1569". However, the fact that the arms were confirmed by William Dethick shows that they were already in existence. They were not new arms and the 1569 Visitation was a legal document.
For further information about Arms go to our Useful Sources Page: Additional Sources, A - C (Arms, Coats of)
Link to the DAJ can also be found on our Useful Sources page.

[17] Cox (above) was citing Harleian MSS, 6592, f.88. Written in his personal copy (1592) of the Visitation of 1569, Wryley stated that [Crich] "it is now the habitacion of John Cleay Gentleman, my verie good friend and kinsman. It is seated on a hill, fertile and well stored both for wood and cole near the river Darwen [Derwent]"..

[18] Flowers Visitation is mentioned in "Derbyshire Church Notes", by Mr. John Reynolds junior See [5], above. J. C. Cox also says the arms were confirmed.

[19] Staffordshire, Dioceses Of Lichfield And Coventry Wills And Probate: Will of Clay, John Crich, proved 1634 2 June. The inventory of his estate was praysed xiv[?] Jne 1633 by Robert Clarke Richard Pickard George Taylor Robert Wilcokson? Richard Archer.

[20] A number of documents at the Derbyshire Record Office record transactions between Robert and Emmote Clay of Glapwell and the Woolhouses. One document, with no title - ref. D187/2/60 - date: [1589] identifies Robert and Emmote as the parents of John Clay of Crich. This agrees with pedigrees in Dugdale etc. (see bottom of the page). Dugdale also includes a pedigree and arms for Woolhouse of Glapwell.

[21] "DAJ" (1895), Volume 17. Carrington, W. A. "Papers relating to Derbyshire Musters temp. Q. Elizabeth, with the Muster Roll for 1587 in expectation of the Spanish Invasion; from the original docuements preserved at Belvoir".

[22] "DAJ" (1901), Volume 23. Carrington, W. A. "Royal aids for the county of Derby, temp, Eliz." This was a list of loans levied upon the gentry amongst whom was John Cley of Wakebridge gent, by Elizabeth I.

[23] TNA PROB 11/111/213, Will of Dame Elizabeth Talbot Countess of Shrewsbury, Widow of Hardwick, Derbyshire dated 14 March 1608 (i.e. Bess of Hardwick). The witnesses to her will and codicils included Timothy Pusey, John Clay's son in law, and William Cleye who was said to be the solicitor to Timothy Pusey. William's parents were Thomas and Alice of Sherbrooke (Shirebook).

[24] A ceiled bed is a bed with a ceiling, in other words a four poster bed with a wooden top. John Clay owned a number of "sealled beds" at his death, as identified in the inventory of his estate. The sale notice was recorded by Cox (above).

[25] There are two sources for this:
i. Besse, Joseph (1753) London: Printed and Sold by Luke Hinde, at the Bible in George-Yard, Lombard-Street. "A Collection of the Sufferings of the People Called Quakers": For the Testimony of a Good Conscience from the Time of Their Being First Distinguished by that Name in the Year 1650 to the Time of the Act Commonly Called the Act of Toleration Granted to Protestant Dissenters in the First Year of the Reign of King William the Third and Queen Mary in the Year 1689, Volume 1. With grateful thanks to Mrs. Gwyneth Leighton.
No mention of Margaret Ridge, later Mrs. John Lynam, is made in this book.
The event is not described in J. C. Cox's "Annals"; he writes about the sufferings of the Quaker people but not about this specific event.
ii. Carroll, Kenneth L. (Autumn 1966) "THE ANATOMY OF A SEPARATION: THE LYNAM CONTROVERSY". Quaker History", Vol. 55, No. 2, pp. 67-78. Published By Friends Historical Association. Carroll also gives the date as 1661.

[26] Davidson's "Extracts from Letters by Margaret Lynam" (Third Month 1900) are amongst Quaker records. Margaret Lynam and her husband eventually emigrated to Pennsylvania.

[27] The story (Margaret Lynam Story ...) was given to the web mistress by Valerie Jones in November 2001. "I have a lovely story written by Margaret Lynam in 1661". However, it was obviously written some years after the 1661 suffering at Crich, as the Lynams did not marry until 1666, and John Lynam was unmarried when fined by the vicar of South Wingfield as recounted in the story. Having read it, I believe it was written years afterwards, probably either before they left England or when the Lynams were finally settled in America, as the tale seems to be recounted by someone else. Margaret Lynam was called Aunt Margaret, so she had either a niece or a nephew.
Unfortunately,somewhere along the way the date of the Quakers in Crich has been changed to from 1661 to 1667, as if this particular suffering had happened in the later year, and the story "A Quakers Tale", by Sylvia Wright (subsequently published on the CD produced by Val & Ivor Neal, © Sylvia Wright and Valerie Jones, 2002), unfortunately incorrectly contains this later date for the suffering at Crich and has been re quoted in a number of web sites.

Also see, elsewhere on this web site:
Crich, Kelly's 1891 Directory. There is more about the church
The Wolley Manuscripts, Derbyshire: Charters, Documents & Deeds : Places C - E includes a number of references to Crich
The Wolley Manuscripts, Matlock, Places Index
Derbyshire's Parishes, 1811, see Crich
Documents Relating to Matlock & Matlock Bath: Matlock Charters and Early Deeds. See Wakebridge.

For those who wish to study the Quakers further the Records of the Midland Circuit of the Justices of Assize are held by the National Archives.

Derbyshire Pictures Index
Next page
Previous page
Also see
Our Genealogy
Images of
Matlock & Matlock Bath
Another Keene church photograph

More about Crich

Crich Common

Crich from the Tors

Crich, Market Place

Crich Stand

Map of Derbyshire, 1824 - Mr. Rhodes's Excursions

Please note that the children of Mary Calton by her first husband are not included, although they appear on the pedigree.
They were Dorothy, Nicholas, George and Sara.
The surname on the original is spelt Cley; where I have written Clay is my own spelling of the surname.
There are spelling inconsistencies, too, throughout the text, often depending on the source material.

Our Genealogy
includes an image of the crest my Clay family used. It is the same crest.