Derbyshire's Parishes, 1811> This page
Derbyshire's Parishes, 1811
The parishes and chapelries as they were just over 200 years ago. Extracts from an early Derbyshire history

Parishes B
From : 'History of Derbyshire' by David Peter Davies
Derbyshire

Parishes B


BAKEWELL
"Bakewell is the most extensive parish in Derbyshire; measuring in length from north-west to south east, more than twenty miles, and in breadth eight. It contains nine chapelries and several large hamlets: containing altogether about 1200 houses.
The town of Bakewell is of great antiquity. It is generally granted that it existed in the time of the Saxons : for in the year 924, Edward the Elder, marched from Nottingham into Peaclond, as far as a place called Badecanwyllam, which he converted into a borough, and ordered a city to be built in its neighbourhood, and to be strongly fortified. - From this circumstance, it is supposed that there was a town here before that period, which derived its name (Bath-quelle) from a Bath situated in the place, which had been in use long before the visit of this monarch. The place where this ancient bath was situated, is now occupied by the residence of Mr. White Watson, who forms mineralogical collections for private cabinets; and whose own Collection of Fossils attracts many inspectors.
At the time of the Norman Survey, there were "at Badequella two priests and a church", at which period the manor belonged to the king, with the exception of one carucate in Hadune, (Haddon) claimed by Henry de Ferrieres. Sometime afterwards, it became the property of William Peverel, whose son gave two parts of his tithe of his demesne of Bakewell, to the monastery of Lenton, in Nottinghamshire. The remaining part of the tithes, with the glebe and patronage of the church, was given to the Dean and Chapter of Litchfield, by John Earl of Montaigne, in whom the estates of the Peverels became vested. The manor afterwards belonged to the Gernors, of Essex, one of whom, had a grant of a fair to be held here, from Henry the Third.[1] In this family it continued till the reign of Henry the Seventh[1], when it was sold to the Vernons of Haddon, from whom it has descended to his Grace the Duke of Rutland, the present possessor.
Bakewell church is situated on an eminence, above the principal part of the town: it is an ancient structure, and built in the form of a cross, with an octagonal tower in the centre, terminated by a lofty spire. The various styles of architecture which may be observed in this church, prove it to have been erected at three different periods, The western part of the nave, is of plain Saxon architecture ; but the external arch of the West door-way, is enriched with Saxon ornaments, and supposed to be the most ancient part of the building. The greater part of the rest of the church, is apparently the work of the fifteenth century; but the pillars which support the tower, are evidently older than that period, though not so ancient as the West end of the nave.
This church contains several ancient monuments, among which the most deserving of notice are the following:
[These include monuments for: Godfrey Foljambe Knight and Avena his wife; Sir Thomas de Wednesley; and members of the Vernon and Manners families]
This church has lately been endowed with eight new bells, of the value of £500.; and an organ has just been erected which cost £300. The living is a vicarage, and the church, is dedicated to All-Saints ; and the Dean and Chapter of Litchfield are patrons. In the churchyard is an ancient stone cross, said to have been conveyed hither from some other place. The sides are diversified by ornamental sculpture. On the front are several rudely carved figures; the upper compartment appears to have represented a crucifixion; but as the top of the cross is broken off, the intention can hardly be determined: this ancient remain is supposed to be nearly eight hundred years old.
Bakewell is a market town, standing on the western banks of the river Wye: its market, which is now on Friday, was formerly held on Monday and at present is but very thinly attended.
The Town-Hall, an obscure building, was erected in 1709: near it are six Almshouses, for six bachelors, or sole-men, endowed by the Manners, with an estate in Wensley, in Darley, and a rent-charge on an estate in Nottinghamshire.
Near the entrance into the town from Ashford, is a large cotton mill, belonging to Sir Richard Arkwright Esq. in which from 300 to 350 persons of both sexes are employed, inclusive of the mechanics, who keep the works in order. The number of houses at Bakewell is about 240; that of inhabitants nearly 1400. Between the gritstone and limestone strata about Bakewell is a thick stratum of shale, which being of an argillaceous nature, and retentive of moisture, the pasturage is remarkably good".
In the Archdeaconry of Derby.

"About two miles to the south of Bakewell is HADDON-HALL, a venerable mansion belonging to the Duke of Rutland : it is situated on a bold eminence, rising on the eastern side of the river Wye, and overlooks the pleasant vale of Haddon. When the desolate turrets, and the princely ruins of Haddon, are first seen amid it luxuriantly swelling group of old and dark trees, they appear to be those of a strong fortress; and even on a nearer approach, the idea is apparently confirmed: but though thus castellated, it does not appear ever to have been furnished with the means of effectual resistance, The mansion consists of several apartments and offices, erected at different periods, and two quadrangular courts. The most ancient part, is the tower over the gateway, on the East side of the upper quadrangle, and was the grand entrance in the time of the Peverels: this part, was probably built, about the reign of Edward the Third[1]-this, however, cannot now be exactly ascertained.
[The description of the interior of Haddon Hall is not included]
Haddon-Hall, is considered as one of our most baronial residences now remaining; and though not at present inhabited, nor in very good repair, is extremely interesting to the antiquary, from the many indications it exhibits of the festive manners and hospitality of our ancestors; and of the inconvenient, yet social, arrangement, by which their mode of life was regulated. This ancient mansion would have been still more interesting, had it not, about fifty years ago, been stripped of its furniture, which was, at that time, conveyed to Belvoir Castle, in Leicestershire, another seat of the Duke of Rutland.
The extensive park, which belonged to this house, was ploughed up and cultivated, about the same time as the removal of the furniture. ...
In Domesday, Haddon is set down as a berewick in the manor of Bakewell, and as belonging to the king. ...
[Information about the Vernon family is not included.]
The joyous festive board was spread here, shortly after the conclusion of peace with America, when nearly 200 couples danced in the long gallery".
There is a picture of Bakewell
The Gentleman's Magazine Library

BALLIDON
Chapelry in the parish of Bradbourne. See Bradbourne.

BAMFORD
Township in the parish of Hathersage. See Hathersage.

BARLBOROUGH
"Barleburg, is in Domesday included in the same manor as the last mentioned place [Whitwell]; and in common with it [Whitwell], has a considerable population. The living is a rectory, the church is dedicated to St. James, and __ Rodes, Esq. is the patron.
The family of Rodes, who resided here for many centuries, is of great antiquity: they were lineally descended from Gerard de Rodes, a baron who lived during the reigns of Henry II. and the three succeeding monarchs, and was employed by king John, as an ambassador to foreign courts[1]. Sir John Rodes, who was living in 1727, was the last lineal descendant of this ancestor, and the last that enjoyed the title. The estate, after his death, went by the marriage of his sister to a Mr. Heathcote, whose descendants assumed the name of Rodes, and are in possession of the estate at this period".
In the Deanery of Chesterfield.

BARLOW
Chapelry in the parish of Stavely. See Stavely.

BARROW
"[This is Barrow on Trent]
"In Barruue", (Barrow) says Domesday, " Godwin and Colegrim had three oxgangs of land and a half to be taxed. It is waste. One villane has there four oxen, and eight acres of meadow." "In Bareue are twelve oxgangs of land to be taxed. Soke to Mileburne (Melbourne). There is a priest and a church, and one sokeman, with half a plough and eighteen acres of meadow." The living is a vicarage; and the church is dedicated to St. Wilfred. Upon an alabaster slab, at the entrance into the chancel, is an effigy of a man in armour. The name of John Bothe and date MCCCLXXXII [1382] are yet visible. On the windows on each side of the church, are painted different coats of arms. Six oxgangs of land in the village, and without it, with all their appurtenances, formerly belonging to the priory of Repton. Barrow contains the liberties of Arleston and Sinfin. The chapelry of Twiford, and the hamlet of Stenson, are also in the parish of Barrow. The inhabitants of these villages are principally supported by agriculture, and the navigation upon the river Trent, and the canal"'.
In the Deanery of Derby.

BARROWCOTE
(Beruerdescote) It is a hamlet in the parish of Etwall. In the Deanery of Castillar. See Etwall.

BARTON
"at the Conquest[2], there were at Bractune a church and a priest, which were the property of Henry de Ferrers.
Barton once belonged to the family of Le Blunt. In the ninth year of Richard the Second[1], Walter le Blunt obtained a charter for free Warren, in all his demesne lands, at Alkemonton, Sapperton and Hollington. William le Blount, Lord Moutjoy, by his will bearing date the thirteenth of October in the year 1534, directed that, in case he should die within the counties of Derby or Stafford, his body should be conveyed to the parish church of Barton, there to be buried under an arch, on the South side of the altar.
During the civil wars, in Charles the First's time, an engagement took place (February 15th, 1646) between the Parliamentary Army stationed at Barton Blount House, and a detachment of Royalists stationed at Tutbury.
The parish at Barton contains but very few houses. The living is a rectory, and Samuel Crompton Esq. is the patron".
In the Deanery of Castillar.

BASLOW
"Basselau, is a chapelry in the parish of Bakewell, containing about 130 houses. The liberty of Baslow includes, the hamlets of Bubnal, Froggat and Curbar, containing altogether about 90 houses".
In the Archdeaconry of Derby.

BEAUCHIEF
"is an extra-parochial hamlet, deriving its name from a religious house of the order of Præmonstratensian, or white canons. The Abbey of Beauchief, or de Bello capite, was situated at this place, in a beautiful little vale near the northern boundary of the county, within a short distance of Sheffield. It was founded, between the years 1172 and 1176, by Robert Fitz-Ralph, Lord of Alfreton. It was dedicated to Thomas a Becket, and the Virgin Mary; and from the former patron, has erroneously been supposed, to have been erected in expiation of his murder, by its founder, who has been represented as one of the executioners of the proud archbishop of Canterbury. Besides the endowments of its original founder, many other grants and privileges were bestowed on it, by various other persons, in different parts of the country. On the dissolution of this house, in the twenty-sixth of Henry the Eighth[1], its revenues, according to Speed, were estimated at £157. 10s. 2d. The Abbey was granted, in the twenty-eighth year of the same reign, to Sir Wich. Strelley; and several of the lands belonging to it, were purchased by Sir William West. Of this extensive building, only a small part of the chapel is now remaining".
In the Deanery of Chesterfield
The Gentleman's Magazine Library

BEELEY
"Begelie, is a village standing in a valley near the banks of the Derwent. It contains about sixty houses, whose inhabitants are chiefly supported by agriculture. The church, which is a chapelry under Bakewell, is dedicated to St. Anne. I the year 1280, the inhabitants of Beeley paid, in one sum annually, five marks to the priest ministering in their chapel".
In the Archdeaconry of Derby.

BEIGHTON
"Bectune was, at the compilation of Domesday, a soke in the manor of Eckington. The living is a vicarage, the church is dedicated to St. Mary, and the Duke of Kingston is the patron. Beighton contains the hamlets of Hackenthorp, Southwell and Berley; containing, together with the whole liberty, about 120 houses".
In the Deanery of Chesterfield.

BELPER
"was formerly written Beaupoire ; and though not noticed in Domesday by that or any name similar to the present, has yet some claims to antiquity. About eight years ago, a small gold coin of Agustus Cæsar, in high preservation, was found in the neighbourhood; and military weapons, generally thought to have been Roman, have been dug up in several places: these remains may lead us to suppose, that though the Romans might not have had a settlement here, the place was not unknown to them. It has been handed down, by immemorial tradition, that John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and son of Edward III. once resided at Belper: but after every possible inquiry, no confirmation of the tradition, or ascertainment of the fact, has been acquired, A few fragments of old walls, of great thickness, buried in the ground, are indeed discoverable. near the dwelling called the Manor-House, the spot where this Duke of famed strength and stature's mansion (the Manorial palace) once stood : but this goes but a short way to prove, that John of Gaunt, more than any other person, resided here. The same tradition says, that the present chapel, and the old bridge, which had arms (supposed to have been his) cut in stone placed in front, were built in his time, and at his expence. However, whether the Duke of Lancaster lived here or not, it certainly has, some time or other, been the residence of some person of note. Not far from the spot where this mansion is thought to have stood, several coins have been dug up; two of which I have seen: they are silver; and judging from the inscriptions, which are much defaced, I think that one is, of the First Edward's reign, and the other of, Stephen's[1].
Whatever, therefore, might have been the grandeur, or the extent of Belper in former times, it appears now impossible to determine: but its present flourishing state is discernible to all, and, perhaps, interests us more. In the year 1801 the population of Belper amounted to 4,500, and in 1809 to 5,635. This increase of population, is owing to the extensive Cotton Mills erected here, belonging to the Messrs. Strutts; where between 1,200 and 1,300 persons find daily employment.
These Mills are four in number, the first of which was erected in 1776, by the late Jedediah Strutt, Esq. The principal of those now standing is 200 feet long, 30 feet wide, and six stories high; and its floors being constructed of brick arches, and paved with brick, it is considered absolutely indestructible by fire, and therefore proof against the havoc of that dreadful element, This mill has three water­wheels attached to it; the largest one, which is used in floods only, is remarkable, as well for its magnitude, as for its singular construction. It is upwards of 40 feet long, and 18, feet in diameter. It being impossible to procure timber
sufficiently large to form the axle, or shaft, of this wheel in the usual mode of structure, it is made circular and hollow, of a great number of pieces, hooped together like a cask : the shaft is between five and six feet in diameter, The other two, which are used when the water is a common height, are composed principally of iron, and are remarkable for their simplicity, strength and lightness of appearance. They were constructed by Mr. T. C. Hewes, and ingenious engineer and mechanic of Manchester.
[There then follows a lengthy description of picking, carding, etc., that is not included here]
Another branch of business carried on at Belper, and which once gave celebrity to the place, is the manufacture of nails; but within the few last years, it is supposed that the trade has been on the decline.
Belper is a market town, with a market on Saturday, which is, generally, well supplied with all kinds of provisions, Its chapel, which is dedicated to St. John, is valued in the king's books at £3.0s. 6d. and yearly tenths 6s. 0d.
The Unitarians, the Independents and the Methodists have also their respective meeting houses. Four hundred children are taught at the Sunday School, supported here by Mr. Strutt; who has adopted several of the plans of education recommended, and so successfully practised, by that benefactor to his country, Mr. Lancaster. The Independents and Methodists also have Sunday schools, where about 700 more are instructed.
A little to the North of the mills, is a handsome stone-bridge of three arches, erected over the Derwent at the expence of the county; the old one, which from the arms placed in the centre, was thought to have been built by John of Gaunt, having been washed down, in the year 1795, by a great flood.
Of the remarkable events that have happened at Belper, there are but few upon record. The plague, that dreadful scourge of the human race, raged here in 1609. From the first of May to the thirtieth of September of that year, fifty-one persons died by it, and were buried near the chapel.
Sometime prior to the year 1686, Thomas Bromfield, a travelling beggar, was gibbeted on the bridge-hill, for murdering an old woman, with whom he lodged. This old woman lived in a house situated where Mr. John Gillott's orchard now is; and the gibbet was erected at no great distance from that place.
December the eleventh, 1686, Matthew Harison was killed in a coal-pit on gibbet-hill.
With its increase in extent and population, Belper is also improving in civilization and respectability. Immorality and ignorance, which were once thought the characteristics of the place, have, in a great measure, disappeared; and improved morals, and more enlarged views, supplied their places.
About the centre of the town, is the mansion of Jedediah Strutt, Esq. and a little above the bridge, pleasantly situated, is Bridge-Hill, the seat of G. B. Strutt, Esq. The wear above the bridge is well worth attention; and the expanse of water, extending for a considerable way up the river, interspersed with islands covered with young trees, has a pleasing effect".
In the Deanery of Derby.
See the wonderful engraving of Belper, dated 1811, by Henry Moore

BENTLEY
(Benedlege) A hamlet in the parish of Longford. In Deanery of Castillar.

BENTLEY
See Fenny Bentley.

BIGGIN
"The parish of Wirksworth contains, ... the hamlets of Caulow, Biggin, Halton, Hitheridge-Hay and Ashley-Hay, consisting altogether of about 80 houses. In the middle of Biggin, there is a considerable sulphorous spring, of the same impregnation as that of Kedleston".
In the Deanery of Ashbourne.

BIRCHOVER
"Near the hamlets of Birchover, and Stanton, the former of which contains about eighty houses, and the latter seventy, there are several objects well worth particular attention.
At Rowtor, near Birchover, is a remarkable assemblage of gritstone rocks, extending in length between seventy and eighty yards, and rising to a height of from forty to fifty. This massive pile is distinguished by the name of Router or Roo-tor-rocks. ...
It should be observed that the huge masses which occupy the summit of Router-rocks, range from east to west along the middle of the hill, and have a narrow passage, and two chambers or caves cut within them ... They were, probably, formed about the same period as an elbow chair near the west end of the North side, which has been rudely shaped on the face of a large mass of stone, and has a seat for one person on each side of it. This, we have been informed, was executed by the direction of Mr. Thomas Eyre, who inhabited the ancient manor-house, called Router-Hall, near the foot of the hill on the south, about sixty years ago,[3] and used frequently to entertain company on this elevated spot".
[There is more about Rowter rocks and Bradley-Tor, but it is not included]
In the Archdeaconry of Derby.

BLACKWALL [or Blackwell, near Bakewell]
"The villages of Flagg, Blackwall, Cowdale and Staden, contain altogether about fifty houses, and two hundred and forty inhabitants".
In the Archdeaconry of Derby.

BLACKWALL
Village in the parish of Kirk Ireton.

BLACKWELL [near Alfreton]
"in Domesday called Blacheuuelle, is a parish, containing but one hamlet of the same name. The living of Blackwell is a vicarage and the church is dedicated to St. Werburgh. In (former times it belonged to priory of Thurgarton, in Nottinghamshire. The clear value is £10 0s. and yearly tenths 10s. 5d. The Duke of Devonshire is the patron".
In the Deanery of Derby.

BOLSOVER
"is a small market town, containing together with the whole liberty, about two hundred and twenty houses, and eleven hundred inhabitants, who are chiefly employed in agriculture. The living is a vicarage, the church is dedicated to St. Mary, and the Duke of Portland is the patron. In the time of Henry the Second[1], there was a church at Bolsover; as it was in that reign given by William Peverel of Nottingham, to the Abbey at Darley. In the church is a noble monument to the memory of Sir Charles Cavendish, the father of first Duke of Newcastle, with a long and remarkable inscription, expressive of his virtues.
At the time of the Norman survey, the manor of Belesover was the property of William Peveril, who is supposed to have built a castle here. In the reign of Richard the First, this fort passed to the hands of John, Earl of Montaigne; when Richard del Pec was appointed governor. How long it remained under him is uncertain; but early in the following reign, king John made his favorite, Briuere, possessor of it: it was, however, soon afterwards-seized by the rebellious Barons, who retained it till the Year 1215, when it was retaken for the king by William Ferrers, Earl of Derby. In recompence for this service he was appointed governor, and, with the exception of an interval of a short time, when it was held by Bryan de L'lsle, and Hugh de Spenser, he enjoyed the honor for six years. In the reign of Henry the Third, the Manor and Castle of Bolsover, were granted to John Scot, Earl of Chester, who dying without issue, it was allotted to Ada, his fourth sister and co-heir, who married Henry de Hastings, Lord of Abergavenny. About this time it became again vested in the Crown, and was not afterwards in the possession of a subject, till the year 1514, when Henry VIII. granted it to Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, in reward for his service in the expedition against France, to be held by the service of one knight's fee: but on the attainder of his son, in the thirty-eighth of the same monarch, it escheated to the crown. In the reign of Edward the Sixth[1], George Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, had a grant of it in fee-farm : it continued in this family until the reign of James I.,[1] when it was sold by Earl Gilbert to Sir Charles Cavendish. Henry, second Duke of Newcastle, grandson of Sir Charles, dying without issue, the estate became the property of Margaret, his sister, who had married John Hollis, Earl of Clare, afterwards Duke of Newcastle: their daughter, married Harley, Earl of Oxford, from whom, by a daughter also, Bolsover was conveyed to the Bentincts, Dukes of Portland, whose possession it still continues.
In the time of Leland (about 1550) this ancient fortress was fast decaying; when it was purchased by Sir Charles Cavendish in 1613, it was in ruins ; and now, not a vestige of it remains. Its exact situation cannot be exactly ascertained ; but it is supposed that it stood near the same spot as the present mansion. The building which is now called Bolsover-Castle stands upon a point which projects a little into the valley below, and overlooks a great extent of country. It was built in the years 1613-14-15, by Sir Charles Cavendish, and is square and lofty fabric of brown stone, having a tower, at each angle; that to the north-east being much larger and higher than the rest. The entrance is by a flight of steps on the east side, and leads through a passage to the hall, which is of a moderate size, and has its ceiling supported by stone pillars. The only other room on this floor designed for habitation is the parlour; this apartment has an arched ceiling, sustained by a pillar in the centre, around which is a plain circular dining table. There are, also, a smaller apartment, and two lodging rooms on this floor; and eight on the attick story, which are all very small: the floor of every room is of stone or plaister: on the whole, it is an ill-contrived, and very inconvenient domestic residence.
Sir Charles Cavendish, died about two years after he had finished this house, and was succeeded by his son, William Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle, a warm friend, and steady supporter of Charles the First. This nobleman was honored with two, if not three, visits from the King and Queen; for whom he, fitted up his house at Bolsover, and provided superb entertainments. All the neighbouring gentry were invited to partake of the festival, and to pay their respects to the royal guests: Ben Jonson was employed in devising speeches, and fitting-up scenes; and the whole entertainment was conducted in such a magnificent style, that the expences of the second visit only, amounted to £15,000.
On the breaking out of the Civil Wars, the Duke, owing to his attachment to the royal cause, was obliged to leave the country, and resided at Antwerp till the restoration; when he returned, and began to build extensive additions to the old-house at Bolsover to the West of the fortified mansion: but these were never completed; and the outside walls only, are standing. In front was a fine terrace, from which a spacious flight of steps, led to the entrance. The proposed extent of this structure may be conceived from the dimensions of the gallery, which was 220 feet in length, and 28 feet wide. At the South-end of the garden is a very curious decayed fountain, standing in an octagon reservoir, six feet deep, ornamented with satyrs, masks, birds, and other figures. On the pedestal is a figure of Venus in alabaster, represented holding wet drapery, and in action of stepping out of a bath".
In the Deanery of Chesterfield
The Gentleman's Magazine Library

BONSALL
"in Domesday Bunteshale, is a rectory of which the Dean of Lincoln is the patron; the church is dedicated to St. James. It contains about two hundred and fifty houses. Its inhabitants are employed in the mines and at the works in Cromford. Here is a Free-school, built and endowed by Robert Ferne of this place, ancestor of the Fernes of Snitterton".
In the Deanery of Ashbourne.
Bonsall in Kelly's 1891 Directory
Three postcards of Bonsall Cross

BORROWASH
Hamlet in the parish of Ockbrook in the Deanery of Derby.

BOYLESTON
"The manor of Boileston was given by William[1] to Henry de Ferrers and was then valued at thirty shillings. The present parish contains from forty to fifty houses. The living is a rectory; and the church is dedicated to St. John the Baptist. Its clear value is £49. 0s. and yearly tenths, 12s. 0 ¼d".
In the Deanery of Castillar.
The Gentleman's Magazine Library

BRACKENFIELD
Hamlet belonging to the parish of Morton.
See Morton.

BRADBOURN[E]
"At the time of the Norman survey there were at "Bradeburne, a priest and a church and twelve acres of meadow." The village of Bradbourn is pleasantly situated on a hill and contains about 30 houses. The living is a vicarage; the church is dedicated to All-saints; the Duke of Devonshire is the patron. It formerly belonged to the priory of Dunstable, in Bedfordshire.
The parish of Bradbourn includes the chapelries of Atlow (Etelauue), Ballington [note: should be Ballidon], Brassington (Brazinctune), and the township of Aldwark; containing about 200 houses and 800 inhabitants[4].
Near the road from Brassington to Pike-Hall, and ancient monument, called Mining-low, has been noticed. It is situated in the centre of a plantation, and is a low barrow, supposed to have been an ancient burial place".
[There is a short description of this]
In the Deanery of Ashbourne

BRADLEY
"Braidelei is a parish containing from 50 to 60 houses. The living is a rectory; the church is dedicated to All-saints. The Dean of Lincoln is the patron.
At Bradley is the seat of the family of the Meynells. In the year 1625, Sir Gilbert Kniveton, resided here; but in the year 1655, the manor was purchased by Francis Meynell, Esq. Alderman of London, from whom it has descended to the present proprietor. The ancient family seat at Bradley has been taken down and the stables converted into a dwellinghouse. It is now seldom used by Mr. Meynel, except for the convenience of hunting in the neighbourhood.
Near this gentleman's Seat there is a spring of chalybeate water, which bears a great resemblance to those at Chesterfield and Duffield".
In the Deanery of Ashbourne.

BRADWELL
"Bradewelle, is a large village in the parish of Hope. The whole liberty contains nearly 100 houses, whose inhabitants are chiefly supported by the mining business.
A natural excavation has been recently discovered in the neighbourhood of Bradwell, called the Crystallized Cavern: it is situated within 200 yards of the village, and is thus described by a late Tourist: ".
[There follows a long description, not included here]
In the Archdeaconry of Derby.

BRAILSFORD
"in Domesday, called Brailesford and also, Breilesfordham, and where there were, then, a church and a priest, is a considerable village. It is situated on each side of the road leading from Derby to Ashburn, and nearly midway between those places. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in the pursuits of agriculture.
The manor of Brailsford was held in the twenty-fifth year of Edward I. by H. de Brailsford. In the reign of Edward IV. it was held by Ralph Shirley, under Duke of Clarence of Tutbury. In this family it continued till it was disposed of by the late Earl Ferrers, to a Mr. Webster, formerly of Derby.
The living is a rectory; the church is dedicated to All-saints; and the Rev. Mr. Gardiner is the patron".
In the Deanery of Castillar.

Ednaston Lodge, 1880 - lovely print from a book, with associated text

BRAMPTON
"Brandune or Brantune is a very extensive parish, and the most northerly in the Deanery. The living is a curacy, and the church is dedicated to St. Peter. King Henry II. gave it, with all its appurtenances, to the Cathedral at Lincoln; and the Dean is now the patron. The church contains several ancient monuments, chiefly relating to the family of Clarke of Somersall. The parish contains three hundred and twenty-five houses; and in that part of it which lies. near Chesterfield, there has been a considerable increase in population, owing to the iron works. This part of the country is said to be remarkably healthy and the grave-stones in the church-yard, afford many instances of great longevity".
[There is a lengthy footnote, though it is not repeated in full here:
In 1780, the Rev. Mr. Cartwright, inventor of the Machine for the Combing of Wool, had the curacy at Brampton. When the villagers were affected with "a putrid fever" he administered spoonfuls of yeast from a tub of wort to a supposedly dying youth, who then recovered.]
In the Deanery of Derby.
The Gentleman's Magazine Library

BRASSINGTON
Chapelry in the parish of Bradbourn (see above). In Deanery of Ashbourne.

BREADSALL
"At the time of the Norman survey, "there was at Braideshale a church and a priest, and one mill of thirteen, and fourpence, and twelve acres of meadow".
There was a House of Friers Heremites founded here, in the reign of king Henry the Third : which, afterwards was converted into a small Priory, for the Order of St, Austin, and dedicated to the Holy Trinity. It was endowed with one messuage and twenty acres of land in Horsley and Horston ; with tenements in Derby, Chaddesden, Spondon, Duffield, Windley, Breadsall, Morley, and Hazzlewood, with tenements in Mugginton, and a moiety of the church.
The Priory at Breadsall was also endowed with three messuages, two cottages, and eleven acres of land in Derby; with one cottage and eight acres of land in Chaddesden ; with one toft and two acres of meadow land, and ten acres of pasture in Windley; with one toft and two acres of land in Breadsall; and with one acre and a rood of land in Hazzlewood.
But at the dissolution, it was found, that the revenue of all these possessions, did not amount to more than £13. 0s. 8d. total, or to £10. 17s. 9d. clear. The Priory at Breadsall was given, in the sixth year of Edward the Sixth to Henry, Duke of Suffolk.
The parish of Breadsall is but small, consisting of a single hamlet. The living is a rectory, and the church is dedicated to All-Saints".
In the Deanery of Derby.

BREASON
Chapelry in parish of Sawley (there is more information under Sawley).
In the Deanery of Derby.

BRETBY
"is now but a small chapelry, belonging to the parish of Repton : formerly, however, it appears to have been more considerable in size, as vestiges of walls, foundations, wells, &c. have frequently been discovered in the adjacent ground. In former times there was a castle at Bretby: In the reign of Richard II it belonged to Thomas de Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk ... The estate afterwards descended to the Berkleys, from whom, through a family by the name of Mee, it passed to the present possessor, the Earl of Chesterfield. The site of this castle may be discovered from the unevenness of the ground, no other vestiges remaining, as the walls were entirely levelled.
On the spot where Bretby Park, the residence of the present Earl is built, formerly stood a venerable and magnificent mansion, which, according to tradition, was erected of the materials of which the castle consisted. This ancient edifice, which his Lordship in his youth was, by an artful steward, persuaded to pull down, as being in a dangerous state of decay, though it was afterwards proved to have been very firm and substantial, was furnished with rich tapestry and fine paintings, and surrounded with gardens, disposed after the plan of those at Versailles, in the grand old style, with terraces, statues and fountains".
In the Deanery of Repington.

BRIMINGTON
Part of the parish of Chesterfield. See Chesterfield.

BROUGH
"a small hamlet in the parish and neighbourhood of Hope, is supposed to have been a place of some importance in the time of the Romans. Mr. Pegge, who visited the spot in 1761, was of opinion, that it was once a Roman station; and in proof, mentions, a rude bust of Apollo, and of another deity, which had been found in the fields. He likewise remarked the vestiges of an oblong square building, where a coarse pavement, composed of pieces of tiles and cement, was discovered in searching among the rubbish, he met with the fragment of a tile, on which a part of the word Cohors, was impressed. At Brough-mill, a gold coin of Vespasian had been found in good preservation.
Mr. Bray, who visited and examined this place at a later period, says, that the Roman camp was at the place called the Castle, near the junction of two small streams, named Noo or Noa, and the Bradwell water. The inclosed area was of a square form, measuring 310 feet from south to north, 270 feet from east to west. Many of the old buildings lying on every side of this spot, have been turned up by the plough between the castle and the river, bricks have been taken up; and on the other side of the water, urns have been found. On some of the bricks, Roman letters were impressed: and on the rim of an urn, was this inscription in three lines :-VIR .. VIV .. TR the two last letters being smaller than the others. Pieces of swords, spears, bridle-bits, and coins have also been found here: and a few years ago, a half-length figure of a woman, with her arms folded across her breast, cut in rough grit-stone, was turned up by the plough; and afterwards sold to a gentleman at Bakewell. Not many years ago, a double row of pillars crossed the point of land at the conflux of the two streams: they were of gritstone, and three persons could walk abreast between them.
On the road between Hope and Castleton, rises the lofty eminences called, Win-hill, and Loose-hill, from the event of a battle, which, according to tradition, was fought near them, between two armies who had previously encamped on these eminences, On the summit of the former of these points, is a mound composed of stones, covered with heath and moss, in the middle of which is a rude seat of stones, called Robin Hood's Chair. Under a large heap of stones, a little to the eastward of Win-hill-pike, about the year 1779, an urn was discovered, made of clay, badly baked, and of very rude workmanship".
In the Archdeaconry of Derby.

BUBNAL
See Baslow

BURNASTON
(Bernulfstune) It is a hamlet in the parish of Etwall. In the Deanery of Castillar. See Etwall.

BUXTON
"Buxton lies in a hollow, surrounded by dreary hills and extensive barren heaths: and so uninviting and cheerless is the scenery around it, that were it not for the deserved reputation of its mineral waters, it would never have attracted any notice, and perhaps never have become the residence of human beings. On approaching this celebrated watering place, the country appears naked and forlorn : and nothing but extensive tracts of bleak, elevated moor-lands present themselves to the eye. Long before Buxton is approached, its site may be discovered, by the singular appearance of the hill a little beyond, whose declivity is scarred by innumerable limestone quarries ; the rubbish from which, contrast strikingly with the black heath around, and produce a very remarkable effect. Owing to the hills which rise to a considerable height all round, the town is not discovered until it is almost reached: and its appearance, when the public walks and rides are thronged with carriages, persons on horseback, and parties of gay pedestrians, must produce a striking effect upon a stranger, who, after travelling several hours, over moors and steril heights, suddenly advances, within view of this sequestered spot, rendered gay and lively in its appearance, by its stately buildings, and its showy, dashing, temporary inhabitants. ...
That its warm springs were known to the Romans, and its tepid water used by that people, with whom warm-bathing was, not only a pleasurable, but a necessary practice, is evident from various concuring circumstances. Several ancient roads concentrate at this spot, particularly one called the Bath-way, or Bathom-gate, which commences at Brough. ... Specimens of Roman workmanship have been discovered here at different times. ... The shape and dimensions of the ancient bath, which was about six yards from the present, were clearly discovered when the building of the Crescent commenced in the year 1781. ...
Though we have no accounts that the Buxton waters were used in the middle ages, it seems probable that they were never entirely foresaken ; and it is not until the beginnings of the sixteenth century, that we have certain evidence, that they were in any high degree or reputation. Dr. Jones, who in 1571, published Observations on Buxton Baths, gave them celebrity, by his account, and recommendation of them. The first convenient house for the reception of visitants, was erected a short time previous to this publication, by the Earl of Shrewsbury, on the same spot as the house called at present the Hall, stands : which is composed of a part of the old building. Mary queen of Scots, being, at that time in the custody of the Earl of Shrewsbury, was brought along with him and his wife Elizabeth, in one of his visits to this place. ...
Buxton was much frequented in the reign of Elizabeth[1] ; and since that period, the number of persons resorting to it, and the buildings erected for their accommodation, have been continually increasing. About the year 1670, the old Hall was taken down, and a new and enlarged edifice was erected on the spot, by William, third Earl of Devonshire. The building, has, since that time, undergone several improvements, and is still one of the principal hotels for the reception of company. The baths are enclosed in this building; they are five in number, all adjoining each other, but in different apartments. ...
On a chemical analysis, Buxton waters have been found to be slightly impregnated with mineral matter, particularly calcareous earth, sea-salt, selenite and acidulous gas, with perhaps some other permanently elastic vapour. - The almost invariable temperature of the water is 82 degrees of Farenheit's thermometer; and is clear, sparkling and grateful to the palate. The temperature of the baths is extremely agreeable to the feeling; a slight shock is felt at the first immersion, which is succeeded by a pleasant warmth. ...
The place where the water is usually drank is St Anne's Well;[5] (to whom it was anciently consecrated) an elegant classical building, in the Grecian style....
The principal part of Buxton, is situated near the springs. The Crescent is a noble and magnificent range of building, erected here by the Duke of Devonshire, about thirty years ago, from a design and under the superintendance of Mr. Carr, the Architect. ... Besides the Hall, and the Hotels in the Crescent, there are several good inns and lodging houses, generally crowded with persons in the less elegant walks of life, who resort hither for amusement and health, from the different populous manufactoring towns in the neighbouring counties.
The Buxton season commences about the end of May, and concludes in October; during which time its amusements are various and diversified. Three assemblies are held every week - Monday and Friday for an undress, and Wednesday for a dress ball. An elegant card room is open every evening ; a small and commodious theatre is usually well filled by a genteel audience, three evenings a week; and for the diversion of gentlemen a pack of good harriers are kept by subscription. ...
Prayers are read, during the season, in the assembly-room, the chapel at Buxton being too small, and in too ruinous a state, for company. The allowance for the minister is defrayed by subscription. But for the accommodation of visitors, the Duke of Devonshire is erecting an elegant new church, at a little distance to the North of the town. ...
The number of houses in Buxton is about 100, which are built chiefly of stone: that of resident inhabitants, about 400. The number of visitors, who sojourn here during the season, is uncertain ; but, as the public and private lodging houses contain accommodations for about 700, it may be concluded, that a greater number than that are annually entertained ; particularly as of late years, many of the company have been obliged to seek residences in the neighbouring villages. The principal, if not the only, dependence of the inhabitants, is on the expenditure of the crowds who assemble here".
In the Archdeaconry of Derby.

"About a mile to the westward of Buxton is POOLE'S-HOLE[6], a vast cavern formed by Nature in the limestone rock, and which was, according to tradition, the residence of an outlaw named Poole. ...
Above Poole's Hole, on the side of the hill, are the kilns and limestone quarries before noticed, as pointing out the spot near which Buxton is situated. The limestone in this neighbourhood is of several kinds ; and more than a hundred families have been occupied from father to son, in working the quarries and converting it into lime. The workmen and their families live like the Troglodytes of old, in caverns of the earth ; and though exposed to the variations of the seasons, and the ragings of the storm, they exhibit a longevity unknown to the population of the more civilised part of the kingdom. The name by which this series of mole-hills is distinguished is the Ass-Hillocks.
A little to the South of Buxton, is the Romantic Dale and Rock called LOVER'S LEAP".
There is a picture of Buxton
The Gentleman's Magazine Library


Notes on the above:

[1] Stephen reigned 1135-1154; Henry II reigned 1154-1189; John reigned 1199-1216; Henry III reigned 1216 - 1272; Edward I reigned 1272-1307; Edward III reigned 1327-1377; Richard II reigned 1377-1399; Henry VII reigned 1485-1509; Henry VIII reigned 1509-1547; Edward VI reigned 1547-1553; Elizabeth reigned 1558-1603; James I reigned 1603-1625.
[2] The Conquest, or Norman Invasion, took place in 1066
[3] Thomas Eyre died in 1717, and the estimated sixty years quoted seems to be from Pilkington.
[4] Though not mentioned by Davies, according to the Lysons the parish of Bradbourne also contained the hamlets of Nether-Bradborne, and Lea-hall'.
[5] The well was considered to be one of the seven 'Wonders of the Peak'.
[6] Poole's Hole was another of the seven 'Wonders of the Peak'


Davies' book
An Ann Andrews book transcript