Since ancient times miners had claimed cutting
rights for wood and timber for use in their mines, as pit-props
and as fuel. Matlock and Matlock Bath would have had plentiful
supplies of timber.
Smelting, or extracting the lead from the ore
by melting it, was carried out in a small open hearth. Lead was
cast in layers as each batch of ore was smelted; the blocks of
lead thus produced were referred to as "pigs".
Examples of early smelting-hearths found within the
county were stone lined, with one side open facing the prevailing
wind to create the draught needed. The hilltops of the Matlocks
would have provided very suitable conditions.
| Roman "Finds"
Three pigs of lead, ranging in weight between 37kg and 78kg, and
dating from Roman times were found in Matlock in the eighteenth and
The first was discovered on Matlock Bank in October 1783 and
is now in the British Museum. The pig was found close to the remains
of an old smelting hearth and was only a few inches below the surface.
The face carries an inscription, shown above.
It reads as:
L(uci) Aruconi Verecundi metal(li) Lutud(arensis)
This translates as:
"(Product) of Lucius Aruconius Vericundus from the Lutudarensian
Vericundus was one of the private lessees in the Derbyshire area.
Lutudarum was presumably the administrative centre of the Derbyshire
lead mining area, but its location is unknown.
Top length 19" & width 3½". Bottom length
20½" & width 4½". Weight 84lbs.
This pig of lead was preserved by Adam Wolley and
given to the British Museum in 1797.
|TI. CL. TR. IVT. BR. EX. ARG.
The whereabouts of the second pig, which was found on Matlock
Moor in 1787 and dated from between 41-54 A.D., is unknown. The
face also carried an inscription, which was recorded, and this
time was rather more cryptic.
This translates as
Ti(berii) Cl(audi) Tr(ifernae?) Lut(udarense) Br(itannicum) ex
"(Product) of Tiberius Claudius Triferna: Lutudarensian British
(lead) from the lead-silver works".
Top length 17½". Bottom length 20½". Weight
173lbs. It consisted of 30 layers.
Before this pig disappeared it had been in the possession of a
Mr. Molesworth. Interestingly,
four others with the same inscription were found on the
estates of the Earl of Egremont at Pulborough in Sussex in 1824..
The third pig was found in good condition on Saturday 24th March
1894 on Mr. Daniel Hurd's estate at Portland Grange when a labourer
was trenching some moorland to a depth of two feet and struck the
pig of lead, which was lying face down, with his spade.
It was found probably less than half a mile away from the Wolley
pig. At the time
of its discovery it was described as the finest pig in existence.
The inscription stands for:
(moulded) P(ubli) Rubri Abascanti Metalli Lutudare(n)s(is)
This translates as:
"(Product) of Publius Rubrius Abascantus from the Lutudarensian
Top length 19⅝" & width 3½".
Bottom length 22¼" & width 5¼". Weight
A pig from the same mine was found on nearby Cromford
Moor in 1777; it shows the name of the Roman Emperor Hadrian, so
can be dated to about 130 A.D.
It was preserved by Peter Nightingale of Lea and given to the British
Museum in 1797.
| More Recent Times
Between 1550 and 1692, between the reigns of Elizabeth I and William
III, Derbyshire miners and those of "Matlock in particular
continued to work under the articles embodying their customs
and privileges, until they became spoken of as laws". It became
established that any man could dig for lead by right in the
"King's Field", the mountain limestone district
of Derbyshire, so they could search without being accountable
to the landowner for the surface damage! When a searcher
found a possible vein it was marked temporarily with a cross
on the ground. The King had rights over the strip of land
on each side.
The Barmote Court for Matlock, dating from at least 1653, was
held at nearby Wirksworth twice a year in April and September.
It was this court that dealt with lawbreakers, settled disputes
and determined claims and insisted upon the lore of the miners
being upheld. Punishments for law breakers was severe.
Thomas Manlove, a Barmote Steward of the mid-seventeenth century,
summarised the mining laws and accepted customs in verse:
"By custom old in Wirksworth Wapontake,
If any of this Nation find a rake,
Or sign, or Leading, to the same may set,
In any ground, and there lead ore may get :
They may make Crosses, Holes, and set their Stows,
Sinks, Shafts, build Lodges, Cottages and Coes :
But Churches, Houses, Gardens, all are free
From this strange Custom of the Minery."
The miners defended their customs but
accepted customs could cause problems, especially where the way
the land was used had changed. On 23 April 1823 Mr. Gilbert, of
the Heights of Abraham, found a lead miner called Thomason digging
up the shrubbery in the Fountain Garden, citing ancient mineral
customs about his rights. The case was heard at the Lent Assizes
of the County Court the following year and it had to be decided
whether the land was, at the time of the trespass, a garden or
not. The miner was fined.
1852 Charles Clarke of Matlock Bath was barmaster; his Matlock
deputy was Michael Cardin, also of Matlock. Benjamin Bryan, who
knew Mr. Cardin, wrote that "a
more just and upright man ... there could not have been".
The pair were in office when the Wirksworth Mining Customs and
Mineral Courts Bill of 1851 became an Act of Parliament and the
mining laws were codified.
The miner used a tool called a mattock or a
pick, and hammers and iron wedges in harder veins, to
loosen the ore. They threw the ore onto ridges
on each side of the vein, going deeper where the ore
Many mines were very shallow and, once opened, proved
too poor to develop. Benjamin Bryan cited the example of "Ember
Hill, on the shoulder of Masson, above Matlock Bath" where
there are hollows in the surface showing where there had
been fruitless searches for lead.
There were small buildings, called "coes", near
each mine shaft which were used for tool storage, to provide
shelter and as places for changing into working clothes.
It was here that the lead was smelted and stored until
ready for sale.
Lead is, of course, very poisonous. As miners washed lead-bearing
material, great care was taken with the washing vats, which
had to be covered. If cattle accidentally drank the poisoned
water they would die from something called "belland".
The disposal of the used water was, therefore, strictly controlled.
Old shafts were covered with a pile of uncemented stones
to protect the entrance to the mine but over time these fell
in. They become a danger to grazing cattle and the disused
mines eventually had to be securely fenced. I remember being
told as a child to avoid the dangers of the various excavations
that littered the top of Masson Hill. There was an unfortunate
fatality in October 1887.
George Limb and Frederick Bunting of Matlock walked over
Masson to Bonsall one Sunday afternoon. On their return journey,
after a few drinks at the King's Head, they strayed from
the path as it was by then dark and Limb fell head first
down an uncovered mine shaft. In
recent years attention has been given to capping the shafts
to make them safe for the unwary wanderer.
|Etching of a carving of a medieval lead
miner, with his pick and "kibble".
Originally in Bonsall church, the carving was moved to Wirksworth
in the 19th century by Mr. Marsh, the high bailiff, to save
it from destruction.
Some of those mining for lead on Masson were from Bonsall.
Bath & Scarthin
Newspaper Cuttings, 1838. Death of an earlier Barmaster,
century lead mines
This list of lead mines within the parish in the early nineteenth
century (below) is from Benjamin Bryan's
extracts from "Derbyshire" by John Farey.
Bryan notes that "according to Farey the productiveness of the
mines was declining in 1808".
In 1829 there were about two thousand two hundred and eighty miners
employed in getting ore in Derbyshire.
By 1899 the only working lead mine in the Matlock area was Mill Close
at Darley, one of only three in Derbyshire.
- Coal-hole Rake and Pipe, Masson.
This is "The Devonshire Cavern", Matlock Bath
of more recent years.
- Cornel Rake, Matlock Bath.
- Crichman Pipe, Masson Hill.
- Cross Rake, High Tor.
In 1829 Glover mentioned that the "Cross-rake mine in Matlock
High Tor abounds in lead and calamine. It is in the limestone
- Cumberland Mine, Matlock Bath. See Further
Then and still a cavern, though not longer open to the
|A rake vein
is a straight and vertical crack or fissure in the limestone
strata filled with spar and ore etc.
|A pipe vein
is a cavity, often nearly horizontal, between the beds
of limestone, similarly filled, having a narrow rake
leading from it to the surface of the stratum.
- Dimple, Matlock Bank.
According to Farey, the only mine steam-engine in the county was
going here in 1809.
- Gentlewoman's Pipe, nr. Matlock Bridge.
- Granby Shaft, Matlock Bank (a trial).
- High Tor Rake, Starkholmes.
- Knowle's, Masson Hill (large caverns).
- Lady-gate, nr. Matlock Bridge.
- Mullet-hill or Stoney-way, Matlock.
- Nester's or Nestus Pipe, Masson Hill.
- Nether Hay, Matlock.
- Old Nester's or Nestus, Masson (above Matlock Bath).
A very old mine, formerly very rich, probably referred to in
Domesday and mentioned in the account of the Manor.
See Further information, below
- Seven Rakes, nr. Matlock Bridge.
Animal bones and teeth were found there.
- Side Rake, nr. Starkholmes.
The "Side Mine" was approached by crossing the Derwent
in Matlock Dale "under the High Tor".
"On 1 July 1769 the Lords of the Manor granted to John Barber,
gentleman, and George Goodwin, miner, leave to erect water wheels
and other machines on the east side of the river Derwent for
the purpose of unwatering the mine", with a 21 year lease".
There used to be another weir opposite Whittaker's house and
pop works which David Palmer Pearson believed drove the wheel
to drain the Side Mine. Barber and Goodwin came to operate mines
on both sides of the river from Cawdor to Artists' Corner and
from the Dimple to Matlock Bath, right down to Bullestree near
Also see the Wolley
Manuscripts Vol. 6671 ff.310-313 (Manorial deeds and papers ... water wheels
on E. of Derwent adjoining High Tor Wood and near Matlock Bridge
for unwatering mines 1769).
The Rutland Cavern Guide of 1818 stated that in the Cavern's Roman
Hall "is the mining Apparatus for washing, separating, and
preparing the Lead Ore ; the Apparatus is supplied with streams
of water from the fish ponds, where Gold, and Silver, and River
Fish, are living in perpetual darkness".
The equipment was left over from previous working of the mine and
was eventually removed,
though it is not known what happened to the fish.
The Derby Mercury,
27 July 1836
ACCIDENT. - Tuesday se'nnight the principal
of the engine belonging to the London Lead Mining Company,
working the High Tor lead mine at Matlock, was broken and
other damages sustained, by which the company will be subject
to great loss, as well as the workmen being deprived of
work. The accident is supposed to be owing to some malicious
person having introduced a piece of limestone amongst the
gearing, as a quantity was found crushed among the works.
Another important mine was the Bullestree (Bullace Tree) or Mole
Trap mine slightly to the east of Cromford station. It was worked
for many years, with large sums of money raised from shareholders and
share sales. The
plant was sold at the end of the 1860s. Everything was offered
for sale, from scaffold planks and 40 ton waggon rails, to chains,
drawing barrels, wheelbarrows and a 60-horsepower 3-valve pumping
engine. The hillock
where it had stood was subsequently partially levelled.
On 1st September 1857 the Stoney Way Mining Company of Matlock
was registered for raising and smelting lead ore within the county.
Twelve people signed the memorandum
of association, taking 360 shares.
The company was still operating in 1864, when the nominal capital
was then 2000l. in 2000 shares with a total of 70 shareholders.
When the company was first formed they erected an engine-house
and tall chimney; they had to put a 16-horse engine to pump the
water out their mine (not named) and believed they would
be able to unwater it without much difficulty.
At the same time the Cawdor Mine was involved in draining a large
area on the east of Masson hillside with the aim of successfully
reaching their vein.
In 1882 the Stoney Way Mining Company was struck off the register
of Joint Stock Companies.
Some of these mines are also listed under caverns in Matlock Bath.
More information can be found in:
of the Peak (1840).
of the miners
Defoe's "Tour Through Britain",
which was written in the early eighteenth century. Defoe described
one miner he had seen emerging from a shaft, wearing a leather suit
and cap, as "lean as a skeleton, pale as a corpse, his hair
and beard a deep black; what little flesh he had was lank and, as
we thought, something of the colour of lead itself". Apparently,
Defoe needed an interpreter as he could not understand the dialect!
He also observed how narrow the shaft - at that time called a groove
- was with narrow steps made of timber leading straight down into
the mine. He says that the lead miners were "highly esteemed
in the British army as sappers". During the English Civil War,
and acknowledged in a letter dated 12 June 1643, some 1,100 soldiers
were enlisted as bodyguards for the King - "raiseing the Derbyshire
minors for our life-guard".
Women also worked in the mines and Firth, quoting an un attributed
account from 1829, says: "The head is much enwrapped, and
the features nearly hidden in a muffling of handkerchiefs, over
which is put a man's hat, in the manner of the paysannes of Wales".
He also describes their gowns, usually red, as being "tucked
up round the waist in a sort of bag, and set off by a bright
green petticoat". They
also wore a man's grey or dark blue coat and shoes with 3" thick
soles that were tied round with cords. The 1829 writer called
A great deal of money has been made and lost in the mining of
lead and, although the example he gives is not about Matlock inhabitants,
Firth quotes Bray as writing in 1777 that miners in the Ecton mine
earned one shilling (twelve pence) for six hours work; women earned
between fourpence and eightpence a day; boys and girls earned between
tuppence (two pence) and fourpence a day. In comparison, the mine's
owner, the then Duke of Devonshire, was receiving £10,000.
In "Peak Scenery",
Rhodes describes passing a small lead mine called Mouse Hole that
was between Willersley and Matlock. He found a
"poor solitary individual, apparently about eighty years of
age, industriously pursuing his daily avocation". The old
man had a bucket for the ore which he let down, went down into
the mine himself to fill and then raised when it was full. He placed "the
produce ... in his little hovel at the mouth of the mine".
Rhodes also remarked on the natural cheerfulness of this man, who
was clearly very poor.
Between the villages of Winster and
Bonsall, on Bonsall Moor, there are lots of tiny derelict one-room
miners' dwellings still to be seen.
Inevitably, accidents did occur. Roger Flindall records a John Cardon
suffocating in the Guilder-Eye Old Sough on Masson and later being
buried at St. Giles in 1779.
A search of the parish register shows a John Carline buried there
on 8 June. Another accident, involving one man from Upper Wood
and another from Bonsall, occurred near Wirksworth in 1797.
The nineteenth century saw two further accidents. In May 1836
William Wheatcroft (son of Mr. William Wheatcroft, mine agent,
residing on the spot) was working in the Side Mine under High Tor
with his father. As they were drawing up their ore, the chain that
helped pull it up broke and the cibble, with its contents, fell
on the younger man. He was severely and bruised and died a few
hours later. He was buried at Wirksworth on 2 June 1836, aged 24.
On 17 May 1847 three experienced miners, George Britland, Henry
Henstock, sen., and his son Henry Henstock, were working in
a small lead mine called the Bacon Rake near the top of Masson
when loose earth and rubble, later described as mine rubbish, fell
on top of the two Henstocks, killing them both. The miners who
retrieved the bodies worked in great danger. Following an Inquest
at the Queen's Head, Bonsall, both were buried at St. James's Church
on 21 May 1847. The younger Henstock was 28 years old and unmarried,
whilst his father, who left a wife and family, was 59.
Mills & Furnaces
There appear to have been three lead smelting mills operating
in Lumsdale in the eighteenth century; archeological sketch maps
drawn by the Arkwright Society about 1987 indicate
that one was in the upper part of the Lumsdale Valley, whilst
an older building was lower down, just above the waterfall.
The third smelting mill was close to this mill and had been built
by the Trustees of Bonsall School in 1770. Their mill wheels
were powered by water from the Bentley Brook, then known as Lumms
Brook. During the 1780s a series of advertisements published
Derby Mercury" show that the owners were considering
a change of use for their smelting mills; the mill in the upper
valley became a bone mill (no date) whilst the older building
eventually became a paint mill and the Bonsall School Mill was
used for grinding corn. The top smelting mill was sometimes called
the Offspring Mill, whereas the one lower down was known as the
Lower Lumms Mill.
Mercury, 18 October
TO be SOLD,
THE LEASE (of which two Years were un-expired at Lady-Day
last) of the Lumms Smelting Mills, situate upon the Lumms
Brook, in the Parish of Matlock ; subject to the reserved
annual Rent of 5l.
Also the necessary Implements and materials for smelting
The above Mills are well situated for carrying on the smelting
Trade, or any benefits of Manufactory where a Stream of Water
Applications to be made to Mr. GEORGE EVANS, Cromford-Bridge;
Mr. John SIMPSON, Bonsall ; or Mr. EVANS, Attorney, Derby,
who are empowered to treat for the same.
October, 24th, 1781.
One of several advertisements
published in the 1780s advertising
the Lumsdale Smelting Mills
Lease (copy of)
Cupolas were also used for lead smelting in the Matlock area.
A cupola-furnace was a furnace for smelting metals and Willis
& Parker state that "from around 1735 the cupola-type
smelting works developed using coal as fuel. A few new works were
built, but since the older mills were usually close to coal, they
were often adapted" although
this does not seem have happened in the case of the water
powered Lumsdale mills.
Glover mentioned that in 1829 the cupolas for smelting ore in
the district were at Lea and in the Via-Gellia and that the Messrs.
Alsop, of Lea Wood, were the greatest smelters of lead ore in the
county; they frequently smelted thirty tons per. week.
Bryan described the Lea smelting furnaces as "just outside,
and abutting upon, the stream which divides Matlock from that place".
Following the deaths of Luke and John Alsop in 1830 and 1834 respectively the
business of John Alsop & Co. became solely owned by their brother-in-law,
Joseph Wass, whose
family trustees still owned it in 1903. It
was kept open by the supply of ore from Mill Close mine, bought
by Mr. Edward Miller Wass in 1859;
the ore would have had to pass through Matlock on its way to be
smelted. There were three reverberatory furnaces and four Scotch
hearths at Lea. There was also a slag furnace, where the slag was
re-smelted to extract any remaining metal.
In 1936 the Mill Close lead smelting works at Lea still employed
a fairly large number of men. Mill
Close Mine finally closed in 1940.
| Further Information
Elsewhere on this web site:
Matlock Bath: Fish Pond Stables, Providence Mine & the Mud Heap
Matlock Bath: Royal Cumberland Cavern
Living at the Heights of Abraham. Description of the Great
Rutland Cavern (The Nestus Mine or Nestor Mine) and the Great Masson
Cavern, by the late Peter Aspey
Vista Views of the Heights
Lea Mills, Derbyshire This mid nineteenth century engraving from
"Mrs. Smedley's Ladies' Manual" shows the cupola
where lead was smelted.
Lea Mills, about 1924, shows Lea Lead Works
|Two photos of an unknown lead mine, Vernon
of the Peak" has more information on the Caverns
Cumberland Cavern Advertisement from Bemrose's Guide (about
a little more, under Antiquities on page 41, in the
Lantern Slides and Vista Screen views There are some
images of the interior of the Great Rutland Cavern (The
Nestus Mine or Nestor Mine) .
of George Wigley Walker, co-owner and partner
of the Bullestree and Moletrap Lead Mines in the 1840s.
The Wolley Manuscripts mention Matlock miners petitioning the
House of Commons and the documents contain a good deal of information
about lead mining in Matlock.
Wolley Manuscripts, Matlock provides detailed information
from the Catalogue at County Hall LSL (now at the County Record
Wolley Manuscripts, Derbyshire has more general information
about the whole county
County Hall LSL in Matlock has a three part Index to the Catalogue
of British Museum Additional Manuscripts Numbers 6676 to 6686 being
the Manuscripts relating to the Derbyshire Leadmining Industry
which are part of the British Museum Additional Manuscripts numbers
6668-6718, otherwise known as the Wolley Manuscripts, prepared
from a microfilm copy for Derbyshire County Library by Miriam Wood
(1977). ISBN 0 903463 04 0 pub. Derbyshire County Council.
How to contact
County Hall LSL in Matlock
External Links (these will open in a new window):
about Roman Britain on Guy de la Bédoyère's website
District Mines Historical Society Ltd., where further information
on mining may be found.
the Past has an interesting photograph of the tip at the
Lea cupola in the late 1960s. Nothing remains today.
Information written and researched by and © Ann Andrews.
Intended for personal use only.
 Guildereye Mine on the hillside above
Matlock Bath identified in Willis, Lynn and Parker, Harry (1999) "Images
Of England: Peak District Mining and Quarrying", pub.
Tempus Publishing Limited, Gloucester ISBN 0-7524-1710-X.
The etching (detail) from is from Henry Moore (1818) "Picturesque
Excursions from Derby to Matlock Bath and its vicinity; being a Descriptive
Guide" (1818). There is a transcript
of the Matlock section elsewhere on this web site and the full
engraving is also on the site (scroll down).
 The find was reported in "The
Derby Mercury" of 16 Oct 1783. The find was accidental as "some
persons were ridding ... a piece of ground".
 I am very grateful to Sara Ratcliffe
M.A. for checking the indexes of "Roman
Inscriptions in Britain" II.1
2404.39, 40, 41 and 51. The two images of pigs of lead, under "Roman
are taken from this publication.
 Derbyshire Times and Chesterfield
Herald, 21 April 1894. The article gave the date of the
discovery of the second pig of lead as 1737, clearly a typing
error. According to "The Derby Mercury", of
11 April 1894 the Portland Grange pig of lead was exhibited in
Matlock. The secretary of the Yorkshire Antiquarian Society
thought it was the finest in existence.
 Bryan, Benjamin (1903) "History
of Matlock - Matlock, Manor and Parish" London by
Bemrose & Sons, Limited. The information he extracted from Farey
was from: Farey, John (Geologist) (1811-17), "General
view of the agriculture and minerals of Derbyshire, Vol. 1",
Mining Museum in Matlock Bath has the original.
Bath & Scarthin Newspaper Cuttings, 1766. Miners met
at Matlock Bath.
 "The Derby Mercury",
24 March, 1824. Lent Assizes, Gilbert v. Thomason for trespass "April
last", fine of 40s for the plaintiff and 40s. costs. "The
August 11, 1824. Summer assizes, Gilbert v. Bown & others when
damages of £10 awarded to the plaintiff. Also
Wolley Manuscripts vol. 6681 ff.43d-48.
 "London Gazette",
18 Nov 1851. "... to define and amend the mineral customs
of the Soke and Wapentake of Wirksworth, in the county of Derby,
and of a certain part or district therein, known as the King's
Field, part of the possessions of Her Majesty's duchy of Lancaster,
and of the several manors ... in the said county of Derby, and
to make provision for the better administration of justice in the
Barmote Courts, in the said Soke and Wapentake, and King's Field,
and manors or lordships respectively, and to improve the practice
and proceedings of the said courts...". The Manor of Matlock
was not included in the public notices.
 "The Derby Mercury",
19 October, 1887.
 Lead miner etching of medieval carving
and notes from Cox, J Charles (1877) "Notes on the Churches
of Derbyshire Vol II" Chesterfield: Palmer and Edmunds,
London: Bemrose and Sons, 10 Paternoster Buildings; and Derby.
 Glover, Stephen (1827-8-9) " Directory
of the County of Derby", Intro. p.viii. The
London Gazette, 1848 mentions one of the Alsops, but he wasn't
involved with the Lea Lead Works.
 From Colin Goodwyn. David Palmer Pearson
(d.1934) was a local aniquarian who wrote a number of articles
about local mining history.
 Guide to the Grand Cavern within
the Mountain of Abraham's Heights, Matlock Bath." (1818)
Mark Wardle: Manchester
 Flindall, Roger and Hayes, Andrew
(1976) "The Caverns and Mines of Matlock Bath, 1 The Nestus
Mines: Rutland and Masson Caverns", Moorland Publishing
 "The Derby Mercury",
26 October, 1853. Sale of one Twenty-fourth Share in the Bullistrey
and Moletrap Mine, near Cromford Bridge. The share will be sold
with a proportionate share of the steam engine, mining plant and
other material. "... the mine has recently realised upwards
of One Hundred Loads of Ore at a reckoning".
 "The Derby Mercury",
10 June, 1868. Sale of Mole Trap Mine and Plant. Also
see Biography of George Wigley Walker.
 From reports in "Derbyshire
Times and Chesterfield Herald", 5 September 1857 (originally
published in the Mining Journal), the "Derbyshire
Advertiser and Journal", 25 September
1857 and "The Derby Mercury", 7 October 1857.
 "The Stamford
Mercury", 16 December 1864. Limited Liability Companies
in the East Midlands.
 "The London Gazette",
7 March 1882.
 Firth, J. B. (1908) "Highways
and Byways in Derbyshire" MacMillan & Co., London.
 Defoe, Daniel (1724-6) "A
Tour through the Whole Island of Great Britain" Read
an extract on this site.
 Benjamin Bryan provides the source
as a letter bearing the King's signature printed in Glover's "History",
Vol. 1, appendix.
 Rhodes, Ebenezer (1824) "Peak
pub. London, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, Paternoster
Bath & Scarthin Newspaper Cuttings, 1797.
 "The Derby Mercury", 8
June 8, 1836. Accidental Death.
 "The Derby Mercury",
18 May 1847, Fatal Mine Accident at Matlock. Inquest report 26
 Leaflet published by the Arkwright
Society, about 1987. With thanks to Susan Tomlinson.
 Willis, Lynn and Parker, Harry (1999) "Images
Of England: Peak District Mining and Quarrying", pub.
Tempus Publishing Limited, Gloucester ISBN 0-7524-1710-X.
 "The Derby Mercury",
13 May 1835. Notice, dated 4 May 1835, calling in the debts etc
of the dissolved Partnership between John Alsop, Luke Alsop and
Joseph Wass of Lea, Lead Merchants, who had traded at Lea Lead
Works under the Firm of John Alsop & Co. until the deaths of
Luke and John Alsop.
 The marriage of Joseph Wass and Mary
Alsop took place at Matlock. See Marriages
 Edward Miller Wass was the grandson
of Joseph Wass. He was born at Holloway on 6 September 1829.
Daily Telegraph", 22 July 1936.