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Lead Mining in Matlock & Matlock Bath
The lead mining industry was important in the development of the Matlocks
Matlock & Matlock Bath Index
About Matlock | About Matlock Bath | Stone Quarrying | Find a Name
Historical Records | The Wolley Manuscripts


Since ancient times miners had claimed cutting rights for wood and timber for use in their mines, as pit-props and as fuel. Matlock and Matlock Bath would have had plentiful supplies of timber.

Smelting, or extracting the lead from the ore by melting it, was carried out in a small open hearth. Lead was cast in layers as each batch of ore was smelted; the blocks of lead thus produced were referred to as "pigs". Examples of early smelting-hearths found within the county were stone lined, with one side open facing the prevailing wind to create the draught needed. The hilltops of the Matlocks would have provided very suitable conditions.

 

Lead mining in Matlock and District is discussed under the following sub headings:

Washing ore at the Guildereye Mine,
about 1770.
Etching from Henry Moore's 1818 Guide[1]


Roman "Finds"


Three pigs of lead, ranging in weight between 37kg and 78kg, and dating from Roman times were found in Matlock in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.


Pig of Lead found on Matlock Bank in 1783 and now in the British Museum
It is the '(Product) of Lucius Aruconius Vericundus from the Lutudarensian mine.'

The first was discovered on Matlock Bank in October 1783[2] and is now in the British Museum. The pig was found close to the remains of an old smelting hearth and was only a few inches below the surface. The face carries an inscription, shown above.

It reads as:
L(uci) Aruconi Verecundi metal(li) Lutud(arensis)

This translates as:
"(Product) of Lucius Aruconius Vericundus from the Lutudarensian mine".

Vericundus was one of the private lessees in the Derbyshire area. Lutudarum was presumably the administrative centre of the Derbyshire lead mining area, but its location is unknown[3].

Top length 19" & width 3½". Bottom length 20½" & width 4½". Weight 84lbs.

This pig of lead was preserved by Adam Wolley and given to the British Museum in 1797[4].


TI. CL. TR. IVT. BR. EX. ARG.

The whereabouts of the second pig, which was found on Matlock Moor in 1787 and dated from between 41-54 A.D., is unknown. The face also carried an inscription, which was recorded, and this time was rather more cryptic.

This translates as
Ti(berii) Cl(audi) Tr(ifernae?) Lut(udarense) Br(itannicum) ex arg(entariis)
or
"(Product) of Tiberius Claudius Triferna: Lutudarensian British (lead) from the lead-silver works"[3].

Top length 17½". Bottom length 20½". Weight 173lbs. It consisted of 30 layers.

Before this pig disappeared it had been in the possession of a Mr. Molesworth[4]. Interestingly, four others with the same inscription were found on the estates of the Earl of Egremont at Pulborough in Sussex in 1824[4]..


Pig of lead found in good condition in 1894 on the Portland Grange estate
It is the (Product) of Publius Rubrius Abascantus from the Lutudarensian mine.

The third pig was found in good condition on Saturday 24th March 1894 on Mr. Daniel Hurd's estate at Portland Grange when a labourer was trenching some moorland to a depth of two feet and struck the pig of lead, which was lying face down, with his spade. It was found probably less than half a mile away from the Wolley pig[4]. At the time of its discovery it was described as the finest pig in existence.

The inscription stands for:
(moulded) P(ubli) Rubri Abascanti Metalli Lutudare(n)s(is)
This translates as:
"(Product) of Publius Rubrius Abascantus from the Lutudarensian mine"[3].

Top length 19⅝" & width 3½". Bottom length 22¼" & width 5¼". Weight 15lbs.

A pig from the same mine was found on nearby Cromford Moor in 1777; it shows the name of the Roman Emperor Hadrian, so can be dated to about 130 A.D. It was preserved by Peter Nightingale of Lea and given to the British Museum in 1797[4].

More Recent Times


Between 1550 and 1692, between the reigns of Elizabeth I and William III, Derbyshire miners and those of "Matlock in particular continued to work under the articles embodying their customs and privileges, until they became spoken of as laws". It became established that any man could dig for lead by right in the "King's Field", the mountain limestone district of Derbyshire, so they could search without being accountable to the landowner for the surface damage! When a searcher found a possible vein it was marked temporarily with a cross on the ground. The King had rights over the strip of land on each side[5].

The Barmote Court for Matlock, dating from at least 1653, was held at nearby Wirksworth twice a year in April and September. It was this court that dealt with lawbreakers, settled disputes and determined claims and insisted upon the lore of the miners being upheld. Punishments for law breakers was severe.

Thomas Manlove, a Barmote Steward of the mid-seventeenth century, summarised the mining laws and accepted customs in verse[5]:

"By custom old in Wirksworth Wapontake,
If any of this Nation find a rake,
Or sign, or Leading, to the same may set,
In any ground, and there lead ore may get :

They may make Crosses, Holes, and set their Stows,
Sinks, Shafts, build Lodges, Cottages and Coes :
But Churches, Houses, Gardens, all are free
From this strange Custom of the Minery."[6]

The miners defended their customs[7] but accepted customs could cause problems, especially where the way the land was used had changed. On 23 April 1823 Mr. Gilbert, of the Heights of Abraham, found a lead miner called Thomason digging up the shrubbery in the Fountain Garden, citing ancient mineral customs about his rights. The case was heard at the Lent Assizes of the County Court the following year and it had to be decided whether the land was, at the time of the trespass, a garden or not. The miner was fined[8].

In 1852 Charles Clarke of Matlock Bath was barmaster; his Matlock deputy was Michael Cardin, also of Matlock. Benjamin Bryan, who knew Mr. Cardin, wrote that "a more just and upright man ... there could not have been"[5]. The pair were in office when the Wirksworth Mining Customs and Mineral Courts Bill of 1851 became an Act of Parliament and the mining laws were codified[9].

The miner used a tool called a mattock or a pick, and hammers and iron wedges in harder veins, to loosen the ore. They threw the ore onto ridges on each side of the vein, going deeper where the ore proved richer.

Many mines were very shallow and, once opened, proved too poor to develop. Benjamin Bryan cited the example of "Ember Hill, on the shoulder of Masson, above Matlock Bath" where there are hollows in the surface showing where there had been fruitless searches for lead[5].

There were small buildings, called "coes", near each mine shaft which were used for tool storage, to provide shelter and as places for changing into working clothes. It was here that the lead was smelted and stored until ready for sale.

Lead is, of course, very poisonous. As miners washed lead-bearing material, great care was taken with the washing vats, which had to be covered. If cattle accidentally drank the poisoned water they would die from something called "belland"[5]. The disposal of the used water was, therefore, strictly controlled.

Old shafts were covered with a pile of uncemented stones to protect the entrance to the mine but over time these fell in. They become a danger to grazing cattle and the disused mines eventually had to be securely fenced. I remember being told as a child to avoid the dangers of the various excavations that littered the top of Masson Hill. There was an unfortunate fatality in October 1887[10]. George Limb and Frederick Bunting of Matlock walked over Masson to Bonsall one Sunday afternoon. On their return journey, after a few drinks at the King's Head, they strayed from the path as it was by then dark and Limb fell head first down an uncovered mine shaft. In recent years attention has been given to capping the shafts to make them safe for the unwary wanderer.

 
Etching of a carving of a medieval lead miner, with his pick and "kibble".
Originally in Bonsall church, the carving was moved to Wirksworth in the 19th century by Mr. Marsh, the high bailiff, to save it from destruction[11]. Some of those mining for lead on Masson were from Bonsall.

Matlock Bath & Scarthin Newspaper Cuttings
, 1838. Death of an earlier Barmaster, Francis Hursthouse.


Nineteenth century lead mines


This list of lead mines within the parish in the early nineteenth century (below) is from Benjamin Bryan's extracts from "Derbyshire" by John Farey. Bryan notes that "according to Farey the productiveness of the mines was declining in 1808"[5]. In 1829 there were about two thousand two hundred and eighty miners employed in getting ore in Derbyshire[12]. By 1899 the only working lead mine in the Matlock area was Mill Close at Darley, one of only three in Derbyshire.


  • Coal-hole Rake and Pipe, Masson.
    This is "The Devonshire Cavern", Matlock Bath of more recent years.

  • Cornel Rake, Matlock Bath.

  • Crichman Pipe, Masson Hill.

  • Cross Rake, High Tor.
    In 1829 Glover mentioned that the "Cross-rake mine in Matlock High Tor abounds in lead and calamine. It is in the limestone stratum"[12].

  • Cumberland Mine, Matlock Bath. See Further information, below
    Then and still a cavern, though not longer open to the public
 
A rake vein
is a straight and vertical crack or fissure in the limestone strata filled with spar and ore etc.
 
A pipe vein
is a cavity, often nearly horizontal, between the beds of limestone, similarly filled, having a narrow rake leading from it to the surface of the stratum.
  • Dimple, Matlock Bank.
    According to Farey, the only mine steam-engine in the county was going here in 1809.

  • Gentlewoman's Pipe, nr. Matlock Bridge.

  • Granby Shaft, Matlock Bank (a trial).

  • High Tor Rake, Starkholmes.

  • Knowle's, Masson Hill (large caverns).

  • Lady-gate, nr. Matlock Bridge.

  • Mullet-hill or Stoney-way, Matlock.

  • Nester's or Nestus Pipe, Masson Hill.

  • Nether Hay, Matlock.

  • Old Nester's or Nestus, Masson (above Matlock Bath).
    A very old mine, formerly very rich, probably referred to in Domesday and mentioned in the account of the Manor.
    See Further information, below

  • Seven Rakes, nr. Matlock Bridge.
    Animal bones and teeth were found there.

  • Side Rake, nr. Starkholmes.
    The "Side Mine" was approached by crossing the Derwent in Matlock Dale "under the High Tor".
    "On 1 July 1769 the Lords of the Manor granted to John Barber, gentleman, and George Goodwin, miner, leave to erect water wheels and other machines on the east side of the river Derwent for the purpose of unwatering the mine", with a 21 year lease"[5]. There used to be another weir opposite Whittaker's house and pop works which David Palmer Pearson believed drove the wheel to drain the Side Mine. Barber and Goodwin came to operate mines on both sides of the river from Cawdor to Artists' Corner and from the Dimple to Matlock Bath, right down to Bullestree near Cromford Station[13].
    Also see the Wolley Manuscripts Vol. 6671 ff.310-313 (Manorial deeds and papers ... water wheels on E. of Derwent adjoining High Tor Wood and near Matlock Bridge for unwatering mines 1769).

The Rutland Cavern Guide of 1818 stated that in the Cavern's Roman Hall "is the mining Apparatus for washing, separating, and preparing the Lead Ore ; the Apparatus is supplied with streams of water from the fish ponds, where Gold, and Silver, and River Fish, are living in perpetual darkness"[14]. The equipment was left over from previous working of the mine and was eventually removed[15], though it is not known what happened to the fish.

The Derby Mercury, 27 July 1836

ACCIDENT. - Tuesday se'nnight the principal of the engine belonging to the London Lead Mining Company, working the High Tor lead mine at Matlock, was broken and other damages sustained, by which the company will be subject to great loss, as well as the workmen being deprived of work. The accident is supposed to be owing to some malicious person having introduced a piece of limestone amongst the gearing, as a quantity was found crushed among the works.


Another important mine was the Bullestree (Bullace Tree) or Mole Trap mine slightly to the east of Cromford station. It was worked for many years, with large sums of money raised from shareholders[5] and share sales[16]. The plant was sold at the end of the 1860s. Everything was offered for sale, from scaffold planks and 40 ton waggon rails, to chains, drawing barrels, wheelbarrows and a 60-horsepower 3-valve pumping engine[17]. The hillock where it had stood was subsequently partially levelled[5].

On 1st September 1857 the Stoney Way Mining Company of Matlock was registered for raising and smelting lead ore within the county. Twelve people signed the memorandum of association, taking 360 shares[18]. The company was still operating in 1864, when the nominal capital was then 2000l. in 2000 shares with a total of 70 shareholders[19]. When the company was first formed they erected an engine-house and tall chimney; they had to put a 16-horse engine to pump the water out their mine (not named) and believed they would be able to unwater it without much difficulty[18]. At the same time the Cawdor Mine was involved in draining a large area on the east of Masson hillside with the aim of successfully reaching their vein[18]. In 1882 the Stoney Way Mining Company was struck off the register of Joint Stock Companies[20].


Some of these mines are also listed under caverns in Matlock Bath. More information can be found in:
Gem of the Peak (1840).

Description of the miners


Firth[21] quotes Defoe's "Tour Through Britain"[22], which was written in the early eighteenth century. Defoe described one miner he had seen emerging from a shaft, wearing a leather suit and cap, as "lean as a skeleton, pale as a corpse, his hair and beard a deep black; what little flesh he had was lank and, as we thought, something of the colour of lead itself". Apparently, Defoe needed an interpreter as he could not understand the dialect! He also observed how narrow the shaft - at that time called a groove - was with narrow steps made of timber leading straight down into the mine. He says that the lead miners were "highly esteemed in the British army as sappers". During the English Civil War, and acknowledged in a letter dated 12 June 1643, some 1,100 soldiers were enlisted as bodyguards for the King - "raiseing the Derbyshire minors for our life-guard"[23].

Women also worked in the mines and Firth, quoting an un attributed account from 1829, says: "The head is much enwrapped, and the features nearly hidden in a muffling of handkerchiefs, over which is put a man's hat, in the manner of the paysannes of Wales". He also describes their gowns, usually red, as being "tucked up round the waist in a sort of bag, and set off by a bright green petticoat". They also wore a man's grey or dark blue coat and shoes with 3" thick soles that were tied round with cords. The 1829 writer called them "complete harridans!"[21]

A great deal of money has been made and lost in the mining of lead and, although the example he gives is not about Matlock inhabitants, Firth quotes Bray as writing in 1777 that miners in the Ecton mine earned one shilling (twelve pence) for six hours work; women earned between fourpence and eightpence a day; boys and girls earned between tuppence (two pence) and fourpence a day. In comparison, the mine's owner, the then Duke of Devonshire, was receiving £10,000.

In "Peak Scenery",[24] Rhodes describes passing a small lead mine called Mouse Hole that was between Willersley and Matlock. He found a "poor solitary individual, apparently about eighty years of age, industriously pursuing his daily avocation". The old man had a bucket for the ore which he let down, went down into the mine himself to fill and then raised when it was full. He placed "the produce ... in his little hovel at the mouth of the mine". Rhodes also remarked on the natural cheerfulness of this man, who was clearly very poor.

Between the villages of Winster and Bonsall, on Bonsall Moor, there are lots of tiny derelict one-room miners' dwellings still to be seen.

Accidents


Inevitably, accidents did occur. Roger Flindall records a John Cardon suffocating in the Guilder-Eye Old Sough on Masson and later being buried at St. Giles in 1779[15]. A search of the parish register shows a John Carline buried there on 8 June. Another accident, involving one man from Upper Wood and another from Bonsall, occurred near Wirksworth in 1797[25].

The nineteenth century saw two further accidents. In May 1836 William Wheatcroft (son of Mr. William Wheatcroft, mine agent, residing on the spot) was working in the Side Mine under High Tor with his father. As they were drawing up their ore, the chain that helped pull it up broke and the cibble, with its contents, fell on the younger man. He was severely and bruised and died a few hours later. He was buried at Wirksworth on 2 June 1836, aged 24[26].

On 17 May 1847 three experienced miners, George Britland, Henry Henstock, sen., and his son Henry Henstock, were working in a small lead mine called the Bacon Rake near the top of Masson when loose earth and rubble, later described as mine rubbish, fell on top of the two Henstocks, killing them both. The miners who retrieved the bodies worked in great danger. Following an Inquest at the Queen's Head, Bonsall, both were buried at St. James's Church on 21 May 1847. The younger Henstock was 28 years old and unmarried, whilst his father, who left a wife and family, was 59[27].


Smelting Mills & Furnaces


There appear to have been three lead smelting mills operating in Lumsdale in the eighteenth century; archeological sketch maps drawn by the Arkwright Society about 1987[28] indicate that one was in the upper part of the Lumsdale Valley, whilst an older building was lower down, just above the waterfall. The third smelting mill was close to this mill and had been built by the Trustees of Bonsall School in 1770. Their mill wheels were powered by water from the Bentley Brook, then known as Lumms Brook. During the 1780s a series of advertisements published in "The Derby Mercury" show that the owners were considering a change of use for their smelting mills; the mill in the upper valley became a bone mill (no date) whilst the older building eventually became a paint mill and the Bonsall School Mill was used for grinding corn. The top smelting mill was sometimes called the Offspring Mill, whereas the one lower down was known as the Lower Lumms Mill.


The Derby Mercury, 18 October 1781
TO be SOLD,

THE LEASE (of which two Years were un-expired at Lady-Day last) of the Lumms Smelting Mills, situate upon the Lumms Brook, in the Parish of Matlock ; subject to the reserved annual Rent of 5l.
Also the necessary Implements and materials for smelting Lead Ore.
The above Mills are well situated for carrying on the smelting Trade, or any benefits of Manufactory where a Stream of Water is wanted.
Applications to be made to Mr. GEORGE EVANS, Cromford-Bridge; Mr. John SIMPSON, Bonsall ; or Mr. EVANS, Attorney, Derby, who are empowered to treat for the same.
October, 24th, 1781.

One of several advertisements published in the 1780s advertising
the Lumsdale Smelting Mills Lease (copy of)


Cupolas were also used for lead smelting in the Matlock area. A cupola-furnace was a furnace for smelting metals and Willis & Parker state that "from around 1735 the cupola-type smelting works developed using coal as fuel. A few new works were built, but since the older mills were usually close to coal, they were often adapted"[29] although this does not seem have happened in the case of the water powered Lumsdale mills.

Glover mentioned that in 1829 the cupolas for smelting ore in the district were at Lea and in the Via-Gellia and that the Messrs. Alsop, of Lea Wood, were the greatest smelters of lead ore in the county; they frequently smelted thirty tons per. week[12]. Bryan described the Lea smelting furnaces as "just outside, and abutting upon, the stream which divides Matlock from that place"[5].

Following the deaths of Luke and John Alsop in 1830 and 1834 respectively[30] the business of John Alsop & Co. became solely owned by their brother-in-law, Joseph Wass[31], whose family trustees still owned it in 1903[5]. It was kept open by the supply of ore from Mill Close mine, bought by Mr. Edward Miller Wass in 1859[32]; the ore would have had to pass through Matlock on its way to be smelted. There were three reverberatory furnaces and four Scotch hearths at Lea. There was also a slag furnace, where the slag was re-smelted to extract any remaining metal[5]. In 1936 the Mill Close lead smelting works at Lea still employed a fairly large number of men[33]. Mill Close Mine finally closed in 1940[29].

Further Information


Elsewhere on this web site:


Matlock Bath: Fish Pond Stables, Providence Mine & the Mud Heap



Matlock Bath: Royal Cumberland Cavern



Living at the Heights of Abraham.
Description of the Great Rutland Cavern (The Nestus Mine or Nestor Mine) and the Great Masson Cavern, by the late Peter Aspey



Vista Views of the Heights



Lumsdale



Lea Mills, Derbyshire
This mid nineteenth century engraving from "Mrs. Smedley's Ladies' Manual" shows the cupola where lead was smelted.



Lea Mills, about 1924
, shows Lea Lead Works



VLA9864
 
VLA9865
Two photos of an unknown lead mine, Vernon Lamb Archive


"Gem of the Peak" has more information on the Caverns
Smedley's Cumberland Cavern Advertisement from Bemrose's Guide (about 1869).
There's a little more, under Antiquities on page 41, in the same guide.
Magic Lantern Slides and Vista Screen views There are some images of the interior of the Great Rutland Cavern (The Nestus Mine or Nestor Mine) .
Biography of George Wigley Walker, co-owner and partner of the Bullestree and Moletrap Lead Mines in the 1840s.

The Wolley Manuscripts mention Matlock miners petitioning the House of Commons and the documents contain a good deal of information about lead mining in Matlock.
The Wolley Manuscripts, Matlock provides detailed information from the Catalogue at County Hall LSL (now at the County Record Office).
The Wolley Manuscripts, Derbyshire has more general information about the whole county

County Hall LSL in Matlock has a three part Index to the Catalogue of British Museum Additional Manuscripts Numbers 6676 to 6686 being the Manuscripts relating to the Derbyshire Leadmining Industry which are part of the British Museum Additional Manuscripts numbers 6668-6718, otherwise known as the Wolley Manuscripts, prepared from a microfilm copy for Derbyshire County Library by Miriam Wood (1977). ISBN 0 903463 04 0 pub. Derbyshire County Council.
How to contact County Hall LSL in Matlock


External Links (these will open in a new window):

Read about Roman Britain on Guy de la Bédoyère's website

Peak District Mines Historical Society Ltd., where further information on mining may be found.

Picture the Past has an interesting photograph of the tip at the Lea cupola in the late 1960s. Nothing remains today.


Information written and researched by and © Ann Andrews.
Intended for personal use only.

References:

[1] Guildereye Mine on the hillside above Matlock Bath identified in Willis, Lynn and Parker, Harry (1999) "Images Of England: Peak District Mining and Quarrying", pub. Tempus Publishing Limited, Gloucester ISBN 0-7524-1710-X.
The etching (detail) from is from Henry Moore (1818) "Picturesque Excursions from Derby to Matlock Bath and its vicinity; being a Descriptive Guide" (1818). There is a transcript of the Matlock section elsewhere on this web site and the full engraving is also on the site (scroll down).

[2] The find was reported in "The Derby Mercury" of 16 Oct 1783. The find was accidental as "some persons were ridding ... a piece of ground".

[3] I am very grateful to Sara Ratcliffe M.A. for checking the indexes of "Roman Inscriptions in Britain" II.1 2404.39, 40, 41 and 51. The two images of pigs of lead, under "Roman Finds", are taken from this publication.

[4] Derbyshire Times and Chesterfield Herald, 21 April 1894. The article gave the date of the discovery of the second pig of lead as 1737, clearly a typing error. According to "The Derby Mercury", of 11 April 1894 the Portland Grange pig of lead was exhibited in Matlock. The secretary of the Yorkshire Antiquarian Society thought it was the finest in existence.

[5] Bryan, Benjamin (1903) "History of Matlock - Matlock, Manor and Parish" London by Bemrose & Sons, Limited. The information he extracted from Farey was from: Farey, John (Geologist) (1811-17), "General view of the agriculture and minerals of Derbyshire, Vol. 1", London.

[6] The Mining Museum in Matlock Bath has the original.

[7] Matlock Bath & Scarthin Newspaper Cuttings, 1766. Miners met at Matlock Bath.

[8] "The Derby Mercury", 24 March, 1824. Lent Assizes, Gilbert v. Thomason for trespass "April last", fine of 40s for the plaintiff and 40s. costs. "The Derby Mercury", August 11, 1824. Summer assizes, Gilbert v. Bown & others when damages of £10 awarded to the plaintiff. Also see the Wolley Manuscripts vol. 6681 ff.43d-48.

[9] "London Gazette", 18 Nov 1851. "... to define and amend the mineral customs of the Soke and Wapentake of Wirksworth, in the county of Derby, and of a certain part or district therein, known as the King's Field, part of the possessions of Her Majesty's duchy of Lancaster, and of the several manors ... in the said county of Derby, and to make provision for the better administration of justice in the Barmote Courts, in the said Soke and Wapentake, and King's Field, and manors or lordships respectively, and to improve the practice and proceedings of the said courts...". The Manor of Matlock was not included in the public notices.

[10] "The Derby Mercury", 19 October, 1887.

[11] Lead miner etching of medieval carving and notes from Cox, J Charles (1877) "Notes on the Churches of Derbyshire Vol II" Chesterfield: Palmer and Edmunds, London: Bemrose and Sons, 10 Paternoster Buildings; and Derby.

[12] Glover, Stephen (1827-8-9) " Directory of the County of Derby", Intro. p.viii. The London Gazette, 1848 mentions one of the Alsops, but he wasn't involved with the Lea Lead Works.

[13] From Colin Goodwyn. David Palmer Pearson (d.1934) was a local aniquarian who wrote a number of articles about local mining history.

[14] Guide to the Grand Cavern within the Mountain of Abraham's Heights, Matlock Bath." (1818) Mark Wardle: Manchester

[15] Flindall, Roger and Hayes, Andrew (1976) "The Caverns and Mines of Matlock Bath, 1 The Nestus Mines: Rutland and Masson Caverns", Moorland Publishing Company

[16] "The Derby Mercury", 26 October, 1853. Sale of one Twenty-fourth Share in the Bullistrey and Moletrap Mine, near Cromford Bridge. The share will be sold with a proportionate share of the steam engine, mining plant and other material. "... the mine has recently realised upwards of One Hundred Loads of Ore at a reckoning".

[17] "The Derby Mercury", 10 June, 1868. Sale of Mole Trap Mine and Plant. Also see Biography of George Wigley Walker.

[18] From reports in "Derbyshire Times and Chesterfield Herald", 5 September 1857 (originally published in the Mining Journal), the "Derbyshire Advertiser and Journal", 25 September 1857 and "The Derby Mercury", 7 October 1857.

[19] "The Stamford Mercury", 16 December 1864. Limited Liability Companies in the East Midlands.

[20] "The London Gazette", 7 March 1882.

[21] Firth, J. B. (1908) "Highways and Byways in Derbyshire" MacMillan & Co., London.

[22] Defoe, Daniel (1724-6) "A Tour through the Whole Island of Great Britain" Read an extract on this site.

[23] Benjamin Bryan provides the source as a letter bearing the King's signature printed in Glover's "History", Vol. 1, appendix.

[24] Rhodes, Ebenezer (1824) "Peak Scenery" pub. London, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, Paternoster Row.

[25] Matlock Bath & Scarthin Newspaper Cuttings, 1797.

[26] "The Derby Mercury", 8 June 8, 1836. Accidental Death.

[27] "The Derby Mercury", 18 May 1847, Fatal Mine Accident at Matlock. Inquest report 26 May 1847.

[28] Leaflet published by the Arkwright Society, about 1987. With thanks to Susan Tomlinson.

[29] Willis, Lynn and Parker, Harry (1999) "Images Of England: Peak District Mining and Quarrying", pub. Tempus Publishing Limited, Gloucester ISBN 0-7524-1710-X.

[30] "The Derby Mercury", 13 May 1835. Notice, dated 4 May 1835, calling in the debts etc of the dissolved Partnership between John Alsop, Luke Alsop and Joseph Wass of Lea, Lead Merchants, who had traded at Lea Lead Works under the Firm of John Alsop & Co. until the deaths of Luke and John Alsop.

[31] The marriage of Joseph Wass and Mary Alsop took place at Matlock. See Marriages W.

[32] Edward Miller Wass was the grandson of Joseph Wass. He was born at Holloway on 6 September 1829.

[33] "Derby Daily Telegraph", 22 July 1936.