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Matlock Bath, Derbyshire
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High Tor, Matlock Dale High Tor, the face in the rock

Matlock Bath has often been described as the Switzerland of England. The most famous and enduring image of the village is undoubtedly the view of High Tor which "like some huge bastion, lift[s] its grey head to the sky"[1]. A nineteenth century writer said of the Tor: "If there be any object that possesses a paramount interest over every other in this enchanting dale, that object is High Tor. Matlock [Bath] is never mentioned but the High Tor is associated with the idea"[2].

The village lies in a steep sided valley and is bounded by the River Derwent to the east, with the limestone crags of High Tor and Cat Tor, originally known as Wild Cat Tor, rising almost vertically from the river's edge in places as the river cuts its way through the limestone rocks. There is little on the east bank of the river apart from the Lovers' Walks; almost the only development has been the former colour and gas works sites, the railway line where it surfaces from the tunnels and a pathway up to Starkholmes. The houses, shops and other buildings are all on the west bank of the river, on the slopes that lead to the mighty Masson which rises to over 1,000 feet above sea level.

Matlock Bath's history is discussed below under the following sub headings:

 

Matlock Bath's Development

Matlock Bath was part of the parish of Matlock until 1843 and the history of the two places is intertwined. Old books and journals often talked of Matlock, when the author was actually describing Matlock Bath.

In early times there were few inhabitants in what we now know as Matlock Bath because it was almost inaccessible. The village did not really develop until a road was cut through the rocks at Scarthin Nick at the south end of Matlock Bath and the bridle path from Matlock Bridge was widened.
Matlock
The old parish of Matlock, geographical location, landowners and population
Nineteenth century expansion, population & councils
Scarthin Nick (below)

However, the first development of any major importance followed the discovery of the medicinal springs. "The waters were first applied for medicinal purposes about the latter end of the seventeenth century. The old bath, which was of wood, lined with lead, was made in 1698[3] . It was this bath that gave the place its name and visitors came to use the bath and to drink the waters.

The village was an extremely fashionable and prosperous spa in the nineteenth century, and was visited by the then Princess, later Queen, Victoria on 22 Oct 1832 when she was a guest of the Duke of Devonshire at Chatsworth House[4].
Water Cures

Visitors came to enjoy the spectacular scenery as well as for the water cure. There were plenty of books to tempt the prospective tourist about the village, which had become really popular during the Napoleonic Wars when foreign travel was difficult for the wealthy. Matlock Bath responded to the demand.
Several early Matlock & Matlock Bath Guides are on this website
Bemrose's Guide: Walks and Places of Interest, about 1869


Famous 19th Century People Who Wrote About or Visited Matlock Bath

  • Jane Austen, who mentions Matlock in "Pride and Prejudice" Vol. II, Chapter I
  • Elizabeth Barrett Browning, as a girl
  • Lord George Byron
  • Erasmus Darwin
  • Charles Dickens
  • John Ruskin
  • Sir Walter Scott
  • Mary Shelley - see right

Before this, in 1775, Anna Seward had written a poem about the Derwent - her "favourite river"[5]. Seward wasn't the only person to write poetry about Matlock Bath.

John Wesley preached at Matlock Bath in 1761.

 

In her Gothic novel "Frankenstein" Mary Shelley talks of Matlock:

"We ... proceeded to Matlock, which was our next place of rest. The country in the neighbourhood of this village resembles Switzerland; but everything is on a lower scale ... We visited the wondrous cave, and the little cabinets of natural history ..."

Mary actually is describing Matlock Bath.

Mary Shelley (1994) "Frankenstein" (1818 Text) World Classics, Oxford University Press, Oxford (Vol. III, Chapter II).

Matlock & Matlock Bath - Poetry
Elizabeth Barrett's visit as a young girl


Lists Through the Centuries: Arrivals at Matlock Bath, 1820-1850. European Royal families and nobility, British politicians, academics, clergy, members of the British aristocracy and upper and middle classes of society.

There were also Royal Visitors

  • 22 Oct 1832 - Princess (later Queen) Victoria and her mother, Victoria Duchess of Kent.
  • 31 July 1840 - Dowager Queen Adelaide, widow of King William IV
  • 23 September 1856 - ex-Queen Marie Amelie of France
  • August 1899 - Princess Mary, Duchess of York - later Queen Mary, wife of the future King George V
  • 10 November 1815 - Archdukes John and Louis of Austria
  • 5 February 1816 - Duke Nicholas of Russia, later Emperor
  • 23 July 1818 - Imperial Grand Duke Michael of Russia (see Moore's "Picturesque Excursions" for a short description of the visit, scroll down the page)
  • 10 August 1871 - Emperor Dom Pedro II of Brazil and the Empress.

Hotels in Matlock Bath in the Nineteenth Century

Ebenezer Rhodes enjoyed his visits to Matlock Bath in the early part of the nineteenth century. His description of the hotels at that time is on the right.

At the end of the nineteenth century Matlock Bath's burgeoning popularity amongst all levels of society is reflected in the figures for hotel and lodging house accommodation in 1891, as advertised in Kelly's Directory[1891]. By then the number of hotels had increased from the three described by Rhodes to nine, plus one hydropathy establishment. At that time Thomas Tyack was the proprietor of the New Bath and Royal Hotels, and Mrs. Sarah Evans was at the Temple Hotel, which was "originally built as a lodging house or appendage to the Old Bath"[6].
See Tyack's advertisement below

The Royal Hotel had been built on the site of Old Bath Hotel, with the Old Pavilion set in 16 acres of woodland on the hillside behind. In addition to the hotels there were some thirty-two lodging houses! Refreshments of various kinds could be bought at a the numerous refreshment rooms and restaurants. Gardens, too, were used as places to serve refreshments, especially those on the climb up to the Heights.
  When the writer Ebenezer Rhodes visited the village about 1824 he stayed at Varley's Hotel. He described the three inns that were in Matlock Bath at the time as excellent. He wrote:
"The principal one [hotel] is denominated the Old Bath, and it is a spacious building capable of affording accommodations to nearly one hundred visitors. At this inn there is an excellent assembly room, lighted with elegant glass chandeliers; and a hot and cold bath are included within the establishment." Saxton's Hotel was "a commodious house pleasantly situated on rising ground, nearly opposite Wild Cat Tor".

Rhodes also described the discovery of the skeleton of a moose deer, found when the foundations for the stables were being dug. This was taken to the British Museum. The Temple was "the principal lodging house"' at that time, kept by a Mrs. Evans; it became an hotel shortly after this date. Rhodes deemed it to be excellent and "one of the most delightful residences in the place".

"Peak Scenery" by E. Rhodes,
pub. London, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, Paternoster Row (1824)


Cumming's Old Bath Hotel
Matlock Bath: Temple Hotel
There's a lovely old coloured postcard onsite showing the Old Pavilion and Royal Hotel
Walker's Bath Terrace Hotel

The 1892 postcard on the right shows the New Bath Hotel (Saxton's and later Tyack's), the Bath Terrace Hotel and Holy Trinity Church with the Royal Hotel behind it, at the southern end of Matlock Bath. The Bath Terrace became part of the New Bath and was eventually demolished.

The backs of the houses of Woodland Terrace and the roof of what was Matlock Bath School at the time can be seen in the foreground. Clifton Road winds its way up the hillside and the domed Old Pavilion, with its 228 feet long terrace, can also be seen.

The Old Pavilion was opened by Lord Edward Cavendish in 1884 and was known as the Palais Royal. A band performed twice daily at the Old Pavilion throughout the season. The building was made of glass and had entrances on both Clifton Road and Temple Walk.

From the latter there was a very long and wide straight drive through planted woods. The whole valley was quite densely wooded and the Derwent Gardens Pleasure Grounds beside the River Derwent are only just visible on the bottom right hand side.


Nineteenth Century Postcard of Matlock Bath from Cat Tor, showing the Old Pavilion or Palais Royal as well as the New Bath Hotel, Holy Trinity Church and Clifton Road.
Image (c) Ann Andrews
Matlock Bath from Cat Tor.
Published by Valentines in 1892, No.17465.

There's a coloured version of Matlock Bath from Cat Tor elsewhere on this website
About Holy Trinity Church
Matlock Bath School
Old Pavilion



Advertisement for the New Bath Hotel when it was run by Thomas Tyack.
From : Black's Guide to Derbyshire.
Image (c) Ann Andrews
 


On the left is an advertisement for the New Bath Hotel dating from 1888 when it was run by Thomas Tyack[1].

There are quite a few of pictures of the New Bath on this site. For example:

New Bath Hotel Booklet, about 1900
New Bath Hotel - the Outdoor Swimming Pool
New Bath Hotel (1)

More on the Visitors

Matlock Bath has attracted both painters and writers over the centuries and Artists Corner, opposite High Tor in Matlock Dale, was a favourite haunt of the former. Many writers have described the spectacular scenery in glowing terms.

Not every visitor painted a favourable picture of the scene they encountered, though. By 1908, J. B. Firth was less flattering about the village as he describes Matlock Bath as "a tripper's paradise" and he clearly disliked some of the village's less attractive sites, such as a bottling plant and paint works in the Dale[5]. Quite a contrast with those earlier guides whose authors loved all they saw.

Whilst he was still extremely appreciative of the scenery, Firth describes the noise - "the bawling of the drivers of brakes and waggonettes, the attentions of the pushing salesmen" - and the Switchback Railway, that was for over 40 years on the river bank, as "a wanton outrage to one of the fairest scenes in England"[5]. The Switchback Railway he mentioned was in the Derwent Pleasure Gardens, formerly Orchard Holme or Orchard Close.

By the 1950's there was a miniature railway in the Derwent Gardens for children and a paddling pool was nearby, behind the 'New' or Grand Pavilion near the landing stage.

 
Matlock Bath: Derwent Gardens - The Switchback, (1) Rise & Fall. The story of Matlock Bath's Switchback Railway, from the beginning to its demise
Matlock Bath: Derwent Gardens - The Switchback, (2) Adrenalin Rush

This second pavilion, the Grand Pavilion, is shown on the old pre war postcard on the right. It was built opposite the Fishpond Hotel in 1910, at a cost of £10,000 and was called the Kursaal, though the name was changed during the first war. Clearly designed to impress, it was built of brick "with a large central dome and two smaller domes; it contains a theatre, a large ground floor room and a pump room. The council offices are situated in one wing of the building"[1912]. The Pump Room is only partially visible on the right of the picture.

The Fish Pond is in the centre of the picture. In the 1920s the Pavilion's car park would have been packed with day trippers, who arrived by charabanc. They always paused to have their photo taken, either beside the vehicle or in it. The pictures provide a unique view of the charas that were the favoured mode of transport at the time.
Visitors to Matlock Bath - Travelling by Motor Charabanc

The Pavilion was the venue for cultural events such as the Musical Festival and dances were also held in the ballroom. The Local Council had offices in one wing and a branch of the library was housed here in the 1950's and 60's. It is now the home of the Mining Museum and Tourist Information Centre.

Both before and after the Second World War cycle clubs, whose members lived in towns such as Derby, used to visit Matlock Bath each weekend. The cyclists would often enjoy a hearty egg and chip tea in one or other of the local cafés before returning home. A group of cyclists, with their cycles parked on the pavement edge, can be see relaxing on the wooden seats beside the bus stop in the photograph of the Pavilion.

Postcard of Matlock Bath's Grand Pavilion. Image (c) Ann Andrews
Grand Pavilion, Matlock Bath (see bigger image)

The Fish Pond
One of several postcards of the pond
Fish Pond Stables, 1907
They were demolished to make way for the Grand Pavilion
The Grand Pavilion (Kursaal), 1910-12
The Grand Pavilion (The Kursaal), 1915
People continued to visit Matlock Bath during the First War
Grand Pavilion and Spar Shop

The picture (right), another of a series of cards in my personal collection, shows an omnibus belonging to William Furniss Jnr. on South Parade, outside the Fish Pond Hotel. It depicts a quiet scene as South Parade was almost deserted. However, on Bank Holidays and summer weekends the pavements and roads and hillsides were teeming with tourists.

Some of the houses in the village are reminiscent of Swiss chalets.

South Parade & the Pitchings, a drawing
Also describes Matlock Bath in the summer
Matlock Bath Today (3)
Taken from a similar position, photographed by Martin Rowley. Plus more info
Victoria Tower, View From Masson, 1907-09
Just visible on the skyline of the picture on the right is the Victoria Prospect Tower in the grounds of the Heights of Abraham.


Valentine's postcard, No. 88725, featuring the bus of
W. H. Furniss outside the Fish Pond Hotel
and registered in 1923.
See: Furniss's Garage, Crown Square

The Main Attractions

Jewitt's description of the Heights of Abraham, quoted on the right, is not an exaggeration. The view from the summit today, which can now be reached by cable car, is truly wonderful. Those who still chose to visit the Heights as pedestrians, just as the Victorians did, are able to walk up through the delightful gardens. It is well worth the effort if you are fit.

Matlock Bath's "Heights" are believed to be named after the Heights of Abraham in Quebec, Canada, which British troops scaled in 1759 and where their commander, General James Wolfe, was killed. The Heights in Matlock Bath first became a tourist attraction in the late Georgian era.

Although the lower slopes have been developed, there are few buildings higher up and the only residence is the Upper Tower. In the picture of South Parade with the bus in it, immediately above this section, the Upper Tower can be seen in the grounds of the Heights; it is the white building amongst the trees at the top, just left of centre. This was the home of Samuel Sprinthall who was at the Heights of Abraham for many years and was the great grandfather of Peter Aspey. Peter also lived there and he describes life at the Heights, its ownership and history on his website. Peter includes a postcard dating from 1870 and describes both the Great Rutland and Great Masson Caverns in considerable detail (see link on the right).

The Petrifying Wells also attracted tourists. In 1888, Black's "Guide" recorded that "a penny is the ordinary charge for admission to these wells"[1].
The onsite transcripts of "Gem of the Peak" have more on petrifying wells and the numerous caverns

The public promenade opened in 1874, along the riverbank opposite North Parade[3]. It was extended in 1887. People were entertained on 'The Prom' and there were regular performances from the Band Stand on the opposite side of the river. As well as local bands, entertainers returned to Matlock Bath year after year to please the crowds.

On the same side of the river as the [old] Band Stand is the Lovers' Walks, with footpaths both on the river's edge and up through the woodland to the summit. The Jubilee Bridge has spanned the River Derwent for over a century; it originally connected the Promenade across to the Lovers' Walks, though the Promenade has now gone. The iron bridge was put in place on 14 June, 1887 in time for the Jubilee of Queen Victoria eight days later. A second footbridge, connecting the Lovers' Walks and the Derwent Gardens a bit further down river, was finally erected in 1969.

 

"One of the greatest attractions of Matlock [Bath] is the wooded slopes called the Heights of Abraham, and the gigantic mountain Masson towering above it. ... On arriving at the summit the scene is truly grand and seems to strike the mind with awe ; the view from this point embraces five counties".
Jewitt, L., "Nooks and Corners of Derbyshire"

Matlock Bath Today (2)
General View from The Heights of Abraham, about 1914
Upper Tower, Heights of Abraham
Victoria Prospect Tower.
Two early twentieth century views
Living at the Heights of Abraham.
By the late Peter Aspey

Further details of the Heights of Abraham for those wishing to visit, either on foot or by the cable car, can be found on their website.
Heights of Abraham site

The Great Petrifying Well
Matlock Bath: North Parade, late 1870's (1)
The Promenade, Matlock Bath
Jubilee Bridge and Derwent, Matlock Bath
Lovers' Walks and the Band Stand
Lover's Walks and River Derwent, Edwardian card
The Ferry and the River Derwent, 1905
One of several views of the old ferry - the only way people could reach the Lovers' Walks until the Jubilee Bridge was built

"Another truly delightful part of Matlock [Bath] is the Lovers' Walks, on the opposite side of the river from the village and Masson. These walks are entered from the ferry, and embrace nearly the whole of the eastern side of the dale".
Jewitt, L., "Nooks and Corners of Derbyshire"

The Fountain Baths, was on the opposite side of the road from the promenade; it is now the Matlock Bath Aquarium. There were several private baths and a large swimming bath supplied by spring water which had a temperature of 68 degrees Fahrenheit.

The proprietors of these attractions have been listed in various directories. Those in 1891 included W. E. Howe at the Fountain Baths & Assembly Room, Samuel Sprinthall who was the lessee of the Heights of Abraham (already mentioned, above), William B. Hunt at Matlock Bath Skating Rink, Frederick Downs was the Manager of the Pavilion & Gardens and Robert Hall was listed as Secretary for Matlock & High Tor Recreation Grounds Co. Ltd. Cavern proprietors were Job Hall Cardin at High Tor Grotto in The Dale, Jacob Rains and William Smedley[1891].

Five years later little had changed, although Mrs Howe was at the Fountain Baths and the Skating Rink was not listed. However, by 1916 most of these concerns had changed hands: James Fearn was at the Fountain Baths, Robert Hall had taken over the High Tor Grotto and the Pavilion and gardens had become the property of the Royal Hotel. There was by then a Matlock Bath Improvements Society, based at Riversdale, and Thomas Coates was the Hon. Secretary.[1916]

Many visitors travelled to Matlock Bath by train.

Matlock Bath Station and High Tor
Matlock Bath station was built in the style of a Swiss chalet. It was extended in the 1890s. Includes photos of the station today

Fountain Baths, Swimmers From Riber School. Boys from Mr. Chippett's School attended swimming lessons at the baths


Matlock Bath Venetian Nights or Venetian Fete
This is an annual event.

Illuminations & Venetian Fête in the 1950s

describes some of the event's history.


Decorated boats
Other events that used to be held
Matlock Bath Carnival
Miss Derbyshire Contest

Matlock Bath Floral Fete

Matlock Bath Musical Festival

The River Derwent, seen on the right from close to the Pavilion, is the village's greatest asset. This view, probably photographed in the late 1940s, includes several old riverside buildings that were to disappear when the A6 was widened.

The river appears in many of the pictures of the village. See just some of them in the Matlock Bath 20th & 21st century Images
River Derwent, from north to south

 
Photochrom postcard, No.70579, "Matlock Bath, The River"

How the Majority of the Residents Earned a Living in the Nineteenth Century

The tourist season was a short one and not everyone was involved in the tourist industry, so local people had to find other ways of making ends meet. There was a wide variety of employment available in Matlock Bath at the end of the nineteenth century, listed in Kelly's Directory.[1891]

In the Southern part, near Cromford, was Sir Richard Arkwright & Co.'s Masson Mill (a cotton thread mill) and Simons & Pickard had a paper mill there; James Shepherd of Derby Road was the manager.

Samuel Barnes made hosiery on North parade. Samuel Buxton & Son were builders, William and John Smedley were tufa stone merchants and George Drabble had premises at the Railway station as he was a timber merchant. Joseph Reeds was the managing director of Matlock Bath Gas Light & Coke Co. Limited.

In Matlock Dale were the Stevens Brothers who were barytes and colour manufacturers and Mrs. Mary Whittaker was the proprietress of Matlock Bath Aërated & Mineral Water Works.[1891]

In 1895 the barytes and colour works on Matlock Dale was owned by Edward Stanbridge Ginger[1895]. Four years later, the Via Gellia Colour Co. Ltd. had taken over the works[1899].

 
See Arkwright's Cotton Mill
Masson Mill and the Arkwrights were the largest employers in the district.
Matlock Bath: Midland Express Passing Through the Station An early twentieth century card of the station and the goods yard
Mrs. Mary Whittaker, Aërated Water Manufacturer
Matlock Bath's Glove Factory
During WW1 effort was made to provide winter employment for local people.

Also read about:
'Gloves' newspaper report in 1917 (scroll down on the page)
Lead Mining
Stone Quarrying

Matlock Dale

Though some think of Matlock Dale as beginning just past the railway bridge near the Boat House, the bridge is not the parish boundary; this is a little further along, near the bottom of St. John's Road.

It is easy to get confused as the earlier writers referred to the whole length of the narrow valley, from the Boat House down to Scarthin Nick, as "the Dale", with a north entrance and a south entrance. The north end of the dale was described, for example, in 1840 by W. Adam in his guide "The Gem of the Peak"[6].
Excerpts from the book and names of the residents in 1840 are elsewhere on this web site

Nineteenth century census returns record Matlock Dale beginning a few metres from the bottom of Holme Road and finishing at the bottom of St. John's Road. The Dale was included in Matlock Bath in old tourist guides and trades directories and became part of the parish of Matlock Bath when Holy Trinity Church was built.

The houses in the coloured photo are in the Dale, on the opposite side of the River Derwent from High Tor. There is a bend in the river close to here, known as Artist's Corner, that has been favoured by artists for several centuries. These days the section of the River Derwent below High Tor is now regularly used by canoeists and climbers can be seen scaling the face of the Tor almost every weekend.
St John's Chapel overlooks the Dale.

 

Matlock Dale from High Tor, about 1980.
The houses opposite High Tor including Riversdale.

Matlock Bath: High Tor, Switzerland View
includes 1892 photo of the houses
View of High Tor, by F. Chantrey, 1822. Engraving of a drawing published in "Peak Scenery".
High Tor Guest House, 1945-50. Tor Cottage was built in by Colonel Edward Payne in the early nineteenth century
Whittaker's Bottling Plant, Dale Road
High Tor and the Colour Works
How and why a Colour Works became established below High Tor in Matlock Dale

Work to widen the road at Artist's Corner began in 1936, but in 1939 the wall of the High Tor Guest House collapsed. It was not repaired immediately. The sepia postcard on the right shows both the widened road and the newly re-built wall and was probably taken in the late 1940s.

As already mentioned, the view of High Tor and the Dale was painted innumerable times by artists though they would struggle to do so today because of the tree growth. Many photographs have also been taken and this web site has a large collection of images.

Matlock and Matlock Bath Images includes two sections about Matlock Dale.
Images on their own pages, with biographical and historical information
"Just" Images, contains a further 17 pictures of the Dale

 
Photochrom postcard, No.8630-, "Matlock Dale, High Tor"

Scarthin Nick and Chapel Hill

A mid nineteenth century directory described Scarthin:
"SCARTHIN NICK is a hamlet pleasantly situated on an eminence on the southern border of this parish [Matlock], adjoining the village of Cromford"[1855]. It had, like Matlock Bath, been part of the ancient parish of Matlock.

Black's "Guide", 1888,[1], further described the hamlet: "Scarthin Nick is an opening between two massive limestone rocks, through which the turnpike road passes. Close to these rocks is the entrance lodge to Willersley Castle, the drive passing along between the river Derwent and the rocky boundary of the grounds, until it reaches the bridge".

Although Scarthin did not have a parish church there were several establishments where local people could worship. "Here is a Mission church, erected in 1871, with a belfry, containing one bell, in which divine service is held every Sunday and Wednesday evenings. There are also Primitive and Wesleyan Methodist chapels, the former erected in 1853, and the latter many years since, but enlarged in 1840"[1916].

Roman coins were found here in March 1795, close to the head of a human skeleton.
See documentary evidence in The Wolley Manuscripts, Matlock.

Matlock Bath and Scarthin Nick, together with Chapel Hill, were governed by Matlock Bath and Scarthin Nick Local Board from 1865 until 1894 when they became Matlock Bath and Scarthin Nick Urban District Council (Local Government Act,1894)[1895]. In late 1924, after considerable opposition and a Public Inquiry, the Council amalgamated with Matlock, Cromford and Tansley to form the Matlocks Urban District[7].

There would have been times in the second half of the nineteenth century when Scarthin was a less than pleasant place to live, partly to do with the over crowding but also because of problems with the drainage[8].

 
The Southern Entrance to the Dale, 1900-1910
Scarthin Rock
Scarthin Nick From Allen's Hill, 1892
Scarthin Nick and the Greyhound Pond, about 1905. A large pond is a wonderful asset for any community but during the nineteenth century Scarthin's residents faced some public health issues
Scarthin Nick : Staffordshire Row, 1905
Late eighteenth century terraced houses, built by Arkwright

For such a small place Scarthin had quite a large population.
View onsite transcripts of the census returns
There's a newborn infant, Robert James White, one of the youngest children I've come across in a census return, who can be found living in Scarthin with his family at Schedule 101 in the 1861
Go to 1861 census page

Scarthin residents and businesses were listed under Matlock in several onsite Trade Directories.
Kelly's 1848 Directory
Kelly's 1855 Directory
White's 1857 Directory
White's 1862 Directory

They were also listed under Cromford directories, which are onsite
Cromford, Derbyshire: A collection of 19th century trades directory transcripts



Photographs and scanned images provided by and © the web mistress, unless stated.
Information researched, written by and © Ann Andrews.
Intended for personal use only

References (coloured hyperlinks are to transcripts elsewhere on this website):

[1] "Black's Tourist Guide to Derbyshire" (1888) pub. Adam and Charles Black Edinburgh
[2] Jewitt, Llewellynn Frederick William (?1860) "The Matlock Companion and Visitor's Guide to the Beauties of the Peak of Derbyshire ... " pub. Derby Telegraph Office: Derby
[3] Lysons, Rev Daniel and Samuel Lysons Esq. (1817) "Topographical and Historical Account of Derbyshire" London: Printed for T. Cadell, Strand; and G. and A. Greenland, Poultry. The Old Bath Spring had been discovered two years earlier than the first bath was constructed, in 1696.
[4] Bryan, Benjamin (1903) "History of Matlock - Matlock, Manor and Parish" London by Bemrose & Sons, Limited. Also read the newspaper reports of the time : Visit of Princess Victoria & Her Mother, 1832.
[5] Firth, J. B. (1908) "Highways and Byways in Derbyshire" MacMillan & Co., London.
[6] Adam, W. (1840) "The Gem of the Peak" London; Longman & Co., Paternoster Row MDCCCXL.
[7] There were the petitions to the Ministry of Health from the Matlock Bath and Scarthin Nick Urban District Council, the Bakewell Rural District Council and the Cromford Parish Council for the disallowance of the County of Derby (The Matlocks Urban District) Order, 1923 ("Derby Daily Telegraph", 30 Jan 1924). The public inquiry opened on the 19th February (same newspaper, 19 Feb 1924). On 1st Oct 1924 the various districts were abolished, amalgamating to form the Matlocks Urban District[1925].
[8] Matlock Bath & Scarthin Newspaper Cuttings has two articles about poor conditions at Scarthin. See 1871 and 1872.

[1855] "The Post Office Directory of Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire and Rutlandshire", pub. Kelly and Co., London (1855)
[1891] "Kelly's Directory of the Counties of Derby, Notts, Leicester and Rutland" (May, 1891), pub. London
[1895] "Kelly's Directory of Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire and Rutland", pub. London (1895)
[1899] "Kelly's Directory of Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire and Rutland", pub. London (1899)
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There are online
transcripts:
19th century directories
[1912] "Kelly's Directory of Derbyshire", 1912 (not transcribed on this site)
[1916] "Kelly's Directory of Derbyshire", 1916 } There are online transcripts: 20th century directories
[1925] "Kelly's Directory of Derbyshire", 1925